Table 2.

Association between RHF and all-cause and cause-specific mortality

Causes of DeathCases Per Person-YrIncidence DensityaaHR (95% CI)b
All cause
 All participants1743/527,260330.61.37 (1.11 to 1.70)
 Nonsmokerc626/268,406233.21.58 (1.13 to 2.22)
 Former smokerc366/86,773421.81.73 (1.10 to 2.73)
 Current smokerc660/138,767475.61.08 (0.77 to 1.52)
Cause of death
 Cancer854/527,260162.01.14 (0.81 to 1.60)
 Cardiovascular330/527,26062.61.66 (1.04 to 2.66)
 Infectious62/527,26011.82.71 (1.07 to 6.88)
 Diabetic46/527,2608.71.17 (0.28 to 4.89)
 Hepatic45/527,2608.53.08 (1.20 to 7.92)
 Other406/527,26077.01.48 (0.98 to 2.25)
  • eGFR using the CKD-EPI equation above the age-, sex-, muscle mass-, and history of diabetes and/or hypertension medication-adjusted 95th percentile (details in Concise Methods).

  • a Incidence density (per 100,000 person-yr).

  • b aHR and 95% CI of the participants with RHF compared with those without RHF determined by the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, smoking, regular exercise, regular alcohol ingestion, history of diabetes and/or hypertension medication, BMI, systolic BP, FSG, serum triglyceride, serum HDL-cholesterol, and albuminuria. In the stratified analysis for smoking, smoking history was excluded from the adjusting variables.

  • c Missing in 3316 participants. P for interaction=0.25.