Table 1.

General characteristics of participants at the time of the health screening

CharacteristicsAlive (n=41,760)Deceased (n=1743)Total (n=43,503)P Valuea
Men, %21,086 (50.5)1204 (69.1)22,290 (51.2)<0.001
Age at screening (yr)48.9±10.356.9±10.549.2±10.4<0.001
Smoking, %
 Nonsmoker55.037.954.3<0.001
 Former smoker18.122.218.3
 Current smoker26.940.027.5
Regular exercise, %35.030.834.8<0.001
Regular alcohol intake, %48.149.348.10.35
History of antihypertensive therapy, %8.814.79.0<0.001
History of diabetes therapy, %5.712.26.0<0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg)128.9±20.4135.2±23.7129.2±20.6<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)79.0±12.581.4±13.579.1±12.5<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.9±3.023.8±3.123.9±3.00.04
 <18.5, %2.94.52.9<0.001
 >25.0, %34.333.034.3
Serum creatinineb (mg/dl)0.98±0.151.00±0.140.98±0.15<0.001
FSG (mg/dl)98.3±24.3108.0±38.998.7±25.2<0.001
Serum cholesterol (mg/dl)200.9±36.6201.4±41.7200.9±36.80.61
Serum triglyceride (mg/dl)135.4±94.8145.9±103.5135.8±95.2<0.001
Serum HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)52.8±13.550.6±13.752.8±13.5<0.001
eGFRc (ml/min per 1.73 m2)80.4±11.577.5±11.080.3±11.5<0.001
RHF,d %5.05.95.00.09
Albuminuria,e %3.36.83.4<0.001
LBMf47.4±8.848.3±8.847.4±8.8<0.001
 1st Quartile, %24.436.024.9<0.001
 2nd Quartile, %25.023.825.0<0.001
 3rd Quartile, %25.420.125.2<0.001
 4th Quartile, %25.120.124.9<0.001
  • a Chi-squared tests for discrete variables and t tests for continuous variables.

  • b Recalibrated to isotope dilution mass spectrometry (details in Concise Methods).

  • c eGFR using the CKD-EPI equation.

  • d eGFR higher than the age-, sex-, muscle mass-, and history of diabetes and/or hypertension medication-adjusted 95th percentile (details in Concise Methods).

  • e Dipstick albuminuria 1+ or higher.

  • f LBM by bioimpedance analysis.