Table 1.

Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of the ITT population

CharacteristicEPPIC-1 (n=1002)EPPIC-2 (n=997)Pooled (n=1999)
AST-120 (n=500)Placebo (n=502)AST-120 (n=500)Placebo (n=497)AST-120 (n=1000)Placebo (n=999)
Age, yr56.3±14.955.6±14.954.4±15.555.5±14.655.4±15.355.6±14.8
Sex, %
 Men61.864.954.655.558.260.3
Race, %a
 White78.679.982.877.380.778.6
 Black or African American8.48.06.29.97.38.9
 Asian5.24.22.84.24.04.2
 Other7.88.08.28.68.08.3
CKD cause, %
 Diabetic nephropathy41.842.439.038.440.440.4
 Nondiabetic nephropathy58.257.661.061.659.659.6
 GN25.628.724.829.225.228.9
 Nephrosclerosis14.813.918.818.916.816.4
 Other17.814.917.413.517.614.2
Use of ACEI or ARB, %
 Yes84.485.584.482.984.484.2
Baseline sCr, mg/dlb3.09±0.883.10±0.843.06±0.873.18±0.903.07±0.883.14±0.87
Baseline eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m222.72±8.0022.54±7.2522.61±7.8721.55±7.1822.66±7.9322.04±7.23
Baseline UP/UCr ratio
n499501499494998995
 Mean±SD1.94±1.331.99±1.331.99±1.322.02±1.361.97±1.332.01±1.34
CKD stage, %
 3a1.00.20.60.40.80.3
 3b18.815.316.611.717.713.5
 462.069.366.269.264.169.3
 518.215.116.618.717.416.9
Baseline anemia status, %c
 Yes69.770.370.972.070.371.1
Body mass index, kg/m2d
n500502498497998999
 Mean±SD29.4±6.129.2±7.128.9±6.829.0±7.329.1±6.429.1±7.2
  • Data are presented as the mean±SD, n, or %, as indicated. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups except for baseline sCr (P=0.03), baseline eGFR (P=0.03), and CKD stage (P=0.04) for EPPIC-2.

  • a Race was self-reported.

  • b To convert sCr from mg/dl to µmol/L, multiply by 88.4.

  • c Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level <13.5 g/dl (men) or <12.0 g/dl (women).

  • d Body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.