Table 3.

Main maternal-fetal outcomes in patients and controls

OutcomeControlsPatientsP Value for Patients versus Controls
TurinCagliariAllP ValueTurinCagliariAllP Value
Pregnancies (n)559277836336168504
Cesarean sections23.135.427.2<0.00142.978.654.8<0.001<0.001
Gestational week39.2±1.738.7±1.839.0±1.7<0.00137.3±2.836.1±3.136.9±2.9<0.001<0.001
Preterm (<37 wk)4.79.06.10.0227.146.133.4<0.001<0.001
Early preterm (<34 wk)0.71.41.00.4510.416.812.50.06<0.001
Weight at birth (g)3289.3±4813145.4±4653241.6±480<0.0012869.2±7052669.4±7582802.6±7280.004<0.001
SGA score
 Parazzini
  <10%9.512.010.30.3415.813.515.10.580.01
  <5%4.05.44.50.436.63.75.60.270.41
 INeS
  <10%7.810.88.80.1813.112.012.70.830.03
  <5%3.13.63.20.845.11.23.80.060.72
Need for NICU1.32.91.80.1816.118.716.90.55<0.001
General combined outcome13.620.315.90.0238.754.543.90.001<0.001
Severe combined outcome10.614.511.90.1327.732.929.40.27<0.001
New-onset hypertension4.37.95.50.0512.211.512.00.99
New-onset or doubling of proteinuria28.331.529.40.51
CKD stage shift9.88.39.30.71
  • Data are presented as the mean±SD or percentage unless otherwise specified. ISTAT data (2010) show the following rates for cesarean sections: 37.5% in Italy, 29.9% in Piedmont, and 37.1% in Sardinia.26 The rate for preterm delivery in Italy was 6.6%. There was one case with nondetermined gestational age. SGA was not assessed in the child with uncertain gestational age. Parazzini scores were not assessable in children born before the 28th gestational week. For new-onset hypertension, only normotensive cases at baseline are considered. Doubling of serum creatinine occurred in three patients in the Turin cohort (diabetic nephropathy; pancreas-kidney graft; polycystic nephropathy) and in two patients in the Cagliari cohort (one patient with GN as well as one patient who started peritoneal dialysis in pregnancy) (P=NS). Diagnosis of preeclampsia (only controls are considered) was as follows: 1.2% in Torino-1, 1.0% in Torino-2, 2.9% in Cagliari, and 1.7% in all controls (P=NS).