Table 1.

Baseline characteristics for patients with maximum AKI severity by UO, SC, or both (n=23,866)

CharacteristicaNo AKI (n=8179)Maximum AKI SeverityP Valuec
UO (n=14,177)SC (n=4694)Both (n=4995)
Age (yr), mean (SD)54.1 (17.9)61.9 (16.4)60.4 (17.5)62.4 (15.7)<0.001
Men4786 (58.5)8206 (57.9)2605 (55.5)2826 (56.6)0.01
Race<0.001
 White6549 (80.1)11,283 (79.6)3663 (78)3833 (76.7)
 Black613 (7.5)973 (6.9)405 (8.6)395 (7.9)
 Other1017 (12.4)1921 (13.6)626 (13.3)767 (15.4)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)26 (5.7)29.4 (8.3)26.4 (7)29.1 (8.7)<0.001
Comorbid condition
 Diabetes336 (4.1)903 (6.4)372 (7.9)426 (8.5)<0.001
 Cardiac disease496 (6.1)1358 (9.6)572 (12.2)628 (12.6)<0.001
 Chronic renal disease91 (1.1)182 (1.3)128 (2.7)110 (2.2)<0.001
 History of liver transplant85 (1)265 (1.9)158 (3.4)195 (3.9)<0.001
 History of hypertension1934 (23.6)4719 (33.3)1678 (35.7)1883 (37.7)<0.001
 Myocardial infarction267 (3.3)522 (3.7)198 (4.2)194 (3.9)0.25
 Heart failure277 (3.4)995 (7)463 (9.9)518 (10.4)<0.001
 Chronic liver disease254 (3.1)1057 (7.5)347 (7.4)686 (13.7)<0.001
 Sequelae of chronic liver disease90 (1.1)397 (2.8)139 (3)232 (4.6)<0.001
 Neoplasms987 (12.1)1989 (14)589 (12.5)665 (13.3)0.03
 Malignant neoplasm350 (4.3)614 (4.3)172 (3.7)182 (3.6)0.03
 HIV31 (0.4)24 (0.2)33 (0.7)29 (0.6)<0.001
 Multiple comorbidities2026 (24.8)4798 (33.8)1723 (36.7)2062 (41.3)<0.001
Surgical admission4748 (62.6)8494 (63.9)2291 (52)2813 (59.3)<0.001
SC (mg/dl), mean (SD)
 Known baseline0.9 (0.4)1 (0.4)1.1 (0.6)1.1 (0.6)<0.001
 Hospital admission0.9 (0.4)1 (0.5)1.8 (1.5)1.7 (1.2)<0.001
 Reference0.9 (0.3)0.9 (0.4)1 (0.6)1 (0.6)<0.001
Reference eGFR
 <3069 (0.8)235 (1.7)189 (4)221 (4.4)<0.001
 30–60359 (4.4)1433 (10.1)525 (11.2)586 (11.7)
 >607751 (94.8)12,509 (88.2)3980 (84.8)4188 (83.8)
APS-III score, mean (SD)b46.2 (21.2)63.4 (26.6)67.8 (30.1)79.1 (31.9)<0.001
Fluids, mean (SD)b3.8 (3.1)4.1 (3.5)4.4 (3.9)5 (5)<0.001
Vasopressorsb1220 (14.9)3302 (23.3)1610 (34.3)2147 (43)<0.001
Mechanical ventilationb4037 (0.5)9138 (64.5)2514 (53.6)3376 (67.6)<0.001
Suspected sepsisb458 (5.6)1688 (11.9)727 (15.5)983 (19.7)<0.001
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated. BMI, body mass index; APS-III, Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation III.

  • a Missing values for age (10 patients), sex (1 patient), BMI (26 patients), surgical versus medical admission (2020 patients), known baseline creatinine (19,613 patients), hospital admission creatinine (2115 patients), APS-III score (47 patients), and fluid volume in the first 24 hours (4805 patients).

  • b Conditions measured in the first 24 hours of ICU admission.

  • c P values are shown for difference among the three groups of AKI patients. Patients without AKI are shown but are not formally compared.