Table 5.

Multivariate logistic regression analysis: Effect of risk predictors on the different outcomes (patients with stage 1 CKD)

Patients with Stage 1 CKDCesarean SectionPreterm Delivery <34 wkPreterm Delivery <37 wkSGA Parazzini <10th CentileNeed for NICUStage Shift (or RRT Start)Doubling of or New-Onset ProteinuriaGeneral Combined OutcomeSevere Combined Outcome
Torino cohort (n=265)
 Age (≥30 versus <30 yr)0.93 (0.54 to 1.62)1.18 (0.32 to 4.33)1.63 (0.78 to 3.38)1.12 (0.52 to 2.40)1.37 (0.53 to 3.56)1.15 (0.40 to 3.29)1.29 (0.66 to 2.52)1.39 (0.77 to 2.50)1.20 (0.61 to 2.34)
 Multi- versus nulliparous0.80 (0.46 to 1.40)0.49 (0.13 to 1.91)0.86 (0.42 to 1.76)0.72 (0.33 to 1.58)0.80 (0.31 to 2.09)2.13 (0.75 to 6.02)0.98 (0.51 to 1.91)0.89 (0.49 to 1.59)0.73 (0.37 to 1.43)
 Baseline hypertension3.62 (1.65 to 7.94)11.99 (3.35 to 42.83)3.46 (1.52 to 7.87)2.07 (0.80 to 5.31)1.88 (0.63 to 5.57)1.30 (0.36 to 4.73)2.84 (1.27 to 6.35)2.84 (1.32 to 6.11)2.55 (1.13 to 5.77)
 Baseline proteinuria ≥1 g/d1.69 (0.68 to 4.19)3.07 (0.72 to 13.03)3.64 (1.42 to 9.27)1.66 (0.56 to 4.93)2.35 (0.73 to 7.60)2.91 (0.83 to 10.15)0.95 (0.33 to 2.75)3.14 (1.28 to 7.68)2.21 (0.87 to 5.63)
 Systemic disease3.75 (1.23 to 11.45)3.87 (0.95 to 15.82)3.71 (1.29 to 10.64)1.31 (0.38 to 4.56)5.61 (1.79 to 17.60)1.59 (0.29 to 8.66)3.92 (1.40 to 10.99)2.32 (0.83 to 6.49)2.77 (0.99 to 7.73)
Cagliari cohort (n=105)
 Age (≥30 versus <30 yr)1.11 (0.33 to 3.64)0.91 (0.15 to 5.67)1.20 (0.40 to 3.57)5.35 (0.61 to 46.46)1.55 (0.22 to 10.98)1.01 (0.26 to 3.84)1.72 (0.60 to 4.95)1.86 (0.50 to 6.92)
 Multi- versus nulliparous0.66 (0.24 to 1.81)0.61 (0.14 to 2.62)1.08 (0.44 to 2.66)0.53 (0.16 to 1.75)1.21 (0.27 to 5.41)0.16 (0.03 to 0.83)0.74 (0.25 to 2.22)0.90 (0.38 to 2.15)0.83 (0.31 to 2.23)
 Baseline hypertension1.48 (0.54 to 4.03)13.48 (1.53 to 118.76)3.25 (1.28 to 8.24)1.46 (0.43 to 4.95)10.41 (1.22 to 88.81)0.51 (0.11 to 2.27)5.65 (1.74 to 18.31)2.56 (1.06 to 6.20)2.26 (0.81 to 6.33)
 Baseline proteinuria ≥1 g/d22.05 (1.41 to 345.35)3.43 (0.63 to 18.65)5.61 (0.71 to 44.11)49.85 (3.21 to 775.04)4.83 (0.76 to 30.85)9.69 (1.56 to 60.07)
 Systemic disease2.02 (0.53 to 7.78)0.36 (0.04 to 3.51)2.59 (0.92 to 7.3)0.46 (0.08 to 2.56)0.22 (0.02 to 2.43)2.16 (0.43 to 10.92)3.38 (0.99 to 11.41)2.39 (0.86 to 6.66)0.54 (0.14 to 2.02)
All patients (n=370)
 Age (≥30 versus <30 yr)0.95 (0.58 to 1.56)0.99 (0.35 to 2.79)1.48 (0.81 to 2.70)1.44 (0.72 to 2.87)1.32 (0.58 to 3.01)2.11 (0.81 to 5.48)1.25 (0.69 to 2.70)1.45 (0.87 to 2.41)1.29 (0.72 to 2.31)
 Multi- versus nulliparous0.78 (0.48 to 1.25)0.51 (0.20 to 1.32)0.93 (0.54 to 1.62)0.64 (0.33 to 1.21)0.82 (0.39 to 1.74)0.90 (0.40 to 2.00)0.90 (0.52 to 1.58)0.90 (0.56 to 1.45)0.74 (0.43 to 1.27)
 Cagliari versus Turin4.45 (2.52 to 7.84)1.14 (0.43 to 3.05)1.47 (0.81 to 2.65)0.94 (0.45 to 1.95)0.84 (0.36 to 1.93)1.33 (0.55 to 3.19)0.54 (0.28 to 1.05)1.24 (0.72 to 2.11)0.96 (0.52 to 1.76)
 Baseline hypertension2.55 (1.38 to 4.70)12.22 (4.45 to 33.60)3.44 (1.89 to 6.26)1.91 (0.93 to 3.96)3.07 (1.39 to 6.76)0.98 (0.38 to 2.54)3.80 (2.03 to 7.11)2.68 (1.53 to 4.72)2.53 (1.37 to 4.67)
 Baseline proteinuria ≥1 g/d2.16 (0.94 to 4.96)4.81 (1.48 to 15.66)3.65 (1.61 to 8.24)2.12 (0.84 to 5.36)3.67 (1.43 to 9.41)1.94 (0.61 to 6.15)0.69 (0.25 to 1.89)3.42 (1.55 to 7.57)3.05 (1.38 to 6.75)
 Systemic disease3.20 (1.35 to 7.55)1.70 (0.57 to 5.09)3.16 (1.52 to 6.54)0.90 (0.34 to 2.37)2.00 (0.79 to 5.08)1.51 (0.51 to 4.43)3.33 (1.56 to 7.11)2.38 (1.17 to 4.85)1.45 (0.68 to 3.11)
P value (H&L)0.890.560.790.840.290.130.950.750.59
  • Data are presented as ORs (95% confidence intervals). General combined outcome includes preterm <37 weeks and/or NICU and/or SGA. Severe combined outcome includes early preterm <34 weeks and/or NICU and/or SGA. Models for which expected and observed event rates in subgroups are similar (P=NS) are well calibrated. H&L, Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test.