Table 1.

Patient characteristics

VariableEntire Cohort (n=77)Nonprogressors (n=52)AKIN Stage 3 Progressors (n=25)P Value
Demographics
 Age (yr)65.3±1.663.8±2.268.2±1.90.13
 Median weight (IQR) (kg)82.0 (68.5–96.8)80.0 (68.9–94.9)85.0 (68.3–99.8)0.64
 Men (%)42.836.5560.14
 Race, n (%)0.20
  African American44 (57.1)29 (55.6)15.0 (60)
  White23 (29.9)15 (28.8)8 (32)
  Hispanic10 (13.0)8 (15.4)2 (8)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 CKD24 (31)17 (32.7)7 (28.0)0.80
 Hypertension60 (78)41 (78.8)19 (76)0.78
 Cirrhosis4 (5)0 (0)4 (16)0.01
 Congestive heart failure25 (32.5)15 (29)10 (40)0.44
 Diabetes mellitus35 (44)22 (41.5)13 (52)0.47
Nephrotoxic exposures, n (%)
 NSAIDs8 (10)6 (2)2 (1)0.99
 Aminoglycosides1 (1)0 (0)1 (4.0)0.63
 Amphotericin2 (3)2 (4)0 (0)0.99
 Contrast medium21 (27)15 (28.8)6 (23.1)0.79
 Cardiac surgery9 (11.7)6 (11.5)3 (12.0)0.99
 Sepsis15 (19.5)12 (23.1)3 (12.0)0.36
Clinical data
 Baseline eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)68.6±4.160.0±8.873.3±4.20.15
 Baseline urine flow rate (ml/hr)74.6±11.695.7±16.329.7±4.20.001
 Furosemide naive, n (%)29 (37.7)23 (44.2)6 (24)0.13
 Median furosemide dose (IQR) (mg)100 (80–131.5)100 (73.3–132.3)100 (87.5–135)0.35
 Urine cast score2.3±0.132.1±0.162.7±0.230.05
 Median FeNa (IQR) (%)0.58 (0.14–1.1)0.60 (0.13–1.4)0.51 (0.13–1.0)0.96
 CV SOFA score1.16±0.031.05±0.21.5±0.40.37
 APACHE II score17.8±1.1116.5±1.221.6±2.50.08
AKIN stage at enrollment, n (%)
 Stage 1 (total)41 (53.2)34 (65.4)7 (28.0)
  Urine output criteria15 (19.4)11 (21.1)4 (16.0)
  Serum creatinine criteria38 (49.4)32 (61.5)6 (24.0)
 Stage 2 (total)36 (46.7)18 (34.6)18 (72.0)0.003
  Urine output criteria26 (33.8)11 (21.2)15 (60.0)
  Serum creatinine criteria15 (28.8)10 (19.2)5 (20.0)
Outcomes
 Death16 (20.7)7 (13.4)9 (36.0)0.04
 AKIN stage 325 (32.4)NA25 (100)NA
 RRT11 (14.2)NA11 (44.0)NA
 Death/AKIN32 (41.5)7 (13.4)25 (100)0.001
  • Data presented as mean±SEM unless otherwise noted. NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; CV SOFA, Cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; NA, not applicable.