Table 3.

Association between APOL1 risk alleles and various glomerular diseases

Glomerular DiseaseHIV-Positive Patients and ControlsHIV-Negative Patients and Controls
No. of APOL1 Risk AllelesOR (95% CI)P ValueNo. of APOL1 Risk AllelesOR (95% CI)P Value
0122 versus 1 or 0 risk alleles0122 versus 1 or 0 risk alleles
Controls (n=108)34 (63)18 (33)2 (4)36 (67)17 (32)1 (2)
HIVAN (n=38)2 (5)6 (16)30 (79)89 (17.7 to 912)1.2×10−14
Other CKD (n=78)22 (57)11 (28)6 (15)3.8 (0.6 to 42)0.1325 (64)13 (33)1(3)1.4 (0.02 to 11)>0.99
FSGS (n=22)9 (69)3 (23)1 (8)2.1 (0.03 to 44)0.485 (56)3 (33)1 (11)6 0.3 (0.08 to 527)0.26
HIVICK (n=12)4 (33)5 (42)3 (25)5.6 (0.4 to 86)0.13
Other GN (n=27)a7 (70)3 (30)0 (0)0.0 (0 to 30)>0.9910 (59)7 (41)0 (0)0 (0 to 124)>0.99
Other kidney diseases (n=17)b2 (50)0 (0)2 (50)21 (0.2 to 2029)0.1110 (77)3 (23)0 (0)0 (0 to 210)>0.99
  • Data are given as n (%) unless otherwise indicated. The APOL1 genotype frequencies and associations, tested with the Fisher exact test, are shown for various glomerular diseases among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and general population controls. The only glomerular disease that showed a significant association with APOL1 risk alleles was HIVAN. Of note, HIV-positive FSGS, HIV-negative FSGS, and HIVICK were not significantly associated with APOL1 risk alleles, although group sizes were small. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. P values indicate probability by the Fisher exact test.

  • a Other GN is as follows: HIV-positive: membranoproliferative GN (n=1), membranoproliferative GN consistent with C3 glomerulopathy (n=1), and membranous GN (n=8); and HIV-negative: IgA nephropathy (n=1), lupus nephritis (n=3), membranoproliferative GN (n=2), and membranous GN (n=11).

  • b Other kidney diseases are as follows: HIV-positive: benign nephrosclerosis (n=1), global glomerulosclerosis (n=1), minimal change disease (n=1), and thrombotic microangiopathy (n=1); and HIV-negative: benign nephrosclerosis (n=1), oxalosis (n=1), global glomerulosclerosis (n=2), minimal change disease (n=5), nodular glomerulosclerosis (n=1), severe arterial nephrosclerosis with secondary FSGS (n=1), and thrombotic microangiopathy (n=2).