Table 1.

Outcomes of elderly patients with CKD after first vascular access insertion, according to patient demographics, vascular access type, comorbidities, and year of vascular access insertion

CovariateVariableaInitiated
DialysisbDied before DialysisbSurvived
Dialysis FreebP Value
Study cohort3418 (100)2304 (67.4)515 (15.1)599 (17.5)
Age at study start (yr)
 70–<751047 (30.6)724 (69.1)127 (12.1)196 (18.7)<0.001
 75–<851914 (56.0)1306 (68.2)288 (15.0)320 (16.7)
 ≥85457 (13.4)274 (60.0)100 (21.9)83 (18.2)
Sex
 Men1845 (54.0)1255 (68.0)290 (15.7)300 (16.3)0.08
 Women1573 (46.0)1049 (66.7)225 (14.3)299 (19.0)
Race
 White2552 (74.7)1676 (65.7)405 (15.9)471 (18.5)0.003
 Black597 (17.5)429 (71.9)72 (12.1)96 (16.1)
 Other/unknown269 (7.9)199 (74.0)38 (14.2)32 (11.9)
Vascular access
 AVF2741 (80.2)1825 (66.6)382 (13.9)534 (19.5)<0.001
 AVG677 (19.8)479 (70.8)133 (19.6)65 (9.6)
Comorbidity score
 0–4829 (24.3)570 (68.8)48 (5.8)211 (25.5)<0.001
 5–101474 (43.1)1013 (68.7)208 (14.1)253 (17.2)
 11–211115 (32.6)721 (64.7)259 (23.2)135 (12.2)
Coexisting diseases
 Diabetes2263 (66.2)1555 (68.7)330 (14.6)378 (16.7)0.07
 Cancer925 (27.1)613 (66.3)160 (17.3)152 (16.4)0.07
 Ischemic heart disease2208 (64.6)1471 (66.6)376 (17.0)361 (16.4)<0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1283 (37.5)837 (65.2)244 (19.0)202 (15.7)<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease2168 (63.4)1442 (66.5)373 (17.2)353 (16.3)<0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease1368 (40.0)919 (67.2)240 (17.5)209 (15.3)0.001
 Depression423 (12.4)254 (60.0)99 (23.4)70 (16.5)<0.001
 Dementia356 (10.4)219 (61.5)79 (22.2)58 (16.3)0.001
Cardiac events
 Stroke129 (3.8)74 (57.4)39 (30.2)16 (12.4)<0.001
 Myocardial infarction160 (4.7)90 (56.3)54 (33.8)16 (10.0)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure1388 (40.6)915 (65.9)294 (21.2)179 (12.9)<0.001
Year of vascular access insertion
 2004569 (16.6)391 (68.7)105 (18.5)73 (12.8)0.01
 2005609 (17.8)410 (67.3)101 (16.6)98 (16.1)
 2006634 (18.5)430 (67.8)89 (14.0)115 (18.1)
 2007588 (17.2)376 (63.9)92 (15.6)120 (20.4)
 2008491 (14.4)344 (70.1)62 (12.6)85 (17.3)
 2009527 (15.4)353 (67.0)66 (12.5)108 (20.5)
  • The cohort was followed for 2 years after first vascular access insertion until death, initiation of dialysis, or end of follow-up. P values were determined by Pearson’s chi-squared test. Patients’ comorbidities were determined by using one inpatient and/or two outpatient claims in the 5 years preceding the study index date. Cardiac events were determined 1 year preceding the study index date using primary inpatient diagnosis only.

  • a Values are the number of patients with a given variable and the percentage of the total study cohort.

  • b Values are the number of patients and percentage of patients for that row.