Table 1.

Characteristics of study participants and controls

CharacteristicHIVAN (n=39)dHIV-Positive CKD (n=40)eHIV-Positive Controls (n=54)fP ValuegHIV-Negative CKD (n=41)ePopulation Controls (n=54)h
Sex, n (%)
 Men16.0 (41.0)18.0 (42.9)15.0 (28.0)0.0724.0 (58.1)24.0 (44.4)
 Women23.0 (59.0)22.0 (57.1)39.0 (72.0)0.7317.0 (41.9)30.0 (55.6)
Mean age (SD)34.6 (8.3)36.1 (9.3)38.8 (7.1)0.6236.4 (11.0)38.5 (8.6)
Viral load (log copies/ml)a 5.1 (4.5–5.3)4.7 (3.8–4.9)Undetectable0.001
CD4 (cells/mm3)b 92.0 (76–195)244.5 (71.5–351.5)371.0 (215.0–545.0)0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)c11.9 (7.5–22.6)33.5 (15.9–68.8)121.6 (103.3–146.9)0.00156.6 (8.3–101.7)Not available
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)534.0 (262.0–799.0)233.0 (106.0–388.0)66.0 (55.0–77.0)0.001155.0 (91.0–778.0)Not available
  • Data are given as the median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated.

  • a Patients with HIVAN (n=30), HIV-positive patients with CKD (n=27), and HIV-positive controls (n=45).

  • b Patients with HIVAN (n=26), HIV-positive patients with CKD (n=32), and HIV-positive controls (n=41).

  • c eGFR was calculated according to the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.

  • d HIV-associated nephropathy (collapsing FSGS).

  • e See Table 3 for histologic diagnosis for HIV-positive and HIV-negative CKD.

  • f HIV-positive controls with no kidney disease.

  • g Kruskal–Wallis test comparing HIV-positive patients with HIV-positive controls.

  • h Population controls were from the Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand.