Table 2.

Summary of completed clinical EPO intervention studies in patients with AKI

Study IdentificationIndication (Injury)AKI RiskIndication (Timing)No.Primary End PointOutcomeRef.
NCT01423955Cardiac surgeryCKD3/4Prevention70eGFR, day 3 (continuous)No effect100
NCT01758861Cardiac surgery (complex)>2:CKD, >65, CHF, COPD DM, F, or PVDPrevention98S. Creat >0.3, day 2No effect101
NCT01066351Cardiac surgeryCKD3/4Prevention100S. Creat >0.3 or 50% day 3Positive102
NCT006766234Cardiac surgeryNoneSecondary prevention80Urinary NGALNo effect103
ACTRN012606000058572Critical careeGFR=25–50+>1 risk factor for AKIEarly intervention (Ur GGT×AP)163RAVC (S. Creat up to day 7)No effect104
NCT00654992Cardiac surgeryNonePrevention71S. Creat >50% day 5Positive58
NCT01369732Aortic surgery (cardiac arrest)NonePrevention66S. Creat >50% days 1–7No effectNot published
NCT00425698Renal transplantationNonePrevention72Delayed graft functionNo effect106
ISRCTN85447324Renal transplantationNonePrevention39Not definedNo effect107
  • On the basis of a search using the search terms (“acute kidney injury” OR “acute kidney failure” OR “acute renal failure” OR AKF OR ARF OR AKI) AND (EPO OR erythropoietin OR ESA OR “erythrocyte stimulating agents” OR “erythrocyte stimulating agent”) and a PubMed search 2005–2015 using the search terms (“clinical trial” or trial*) AND (“Acute Kidney Injury”[Mesh]) OR (“acute kidney failure” or “acute renal failure” or “acute kidney injury” or AKF or ARF or AKI) AND (“Erythropoietin”[Mesh]) OR (EPO or erythropoietin or ESA or “erythrocyte stimulating agents” or “erythrocyte stimulating agent”). CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; F, female; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; Ur GGT×AP, urine γ-glutamyl transpeptidase × alkaline phosphatase; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; RAVC, relative average value of creatinine.