Table 3.

Associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with infectious composite events, cardiac composite events or all-cause mortality

25(OH)D ng/mlBaseline 25(OH)D as ExposureTime-Dependent 25(OH)D as Exposure
Composite of First Infectious Hospitalization or Infectious Death
HR (95% CI), by QuartileHR (95% CI), by Quartile
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4
<1414–1919–26>26<1414–1919–26>26
# of Events132131123113132131123113
Model 11.01.00 (0.77–1.30)0.96 (0.72–1.26)0.86 (0.64–1.16)1.00.79 (0.61–1.01)0.72 (0.55–0.94)0.66 (0.49–0.89)
Model 21.01.02 (0.78–1.34)1.08 (0.81–1.43)0.94 (0.69–1.28)1.00.79 (0.61–1.02)0.75 (0.57–0.98)0.72 (0.53–0.98)
Model 31.01.00 (0.77–1.30)0.95 (0.72–1.25)0.84 (0.62–1.14)1.00.79 (0.61–1.01)0.72 (0.55–0.94)0.66 (0.49–0.89)
Composite of First Cardiac Hospitalization or Cardiac Death
# of Events133138127116133138127116
Model 11.01.05 (0.80–1.37)1.00 (0.75–1.33)0.94 (0.69–1.28)1.00.77 (0.59–0.99)0.74 (0.57–0.98)0.71 (0.53–0.96)
Model 21.01.06 (0.81–1.39)1.02 (0.77–1.37)0.99 (0.72–1.35)1.00.75 (0.58–0.98)0.73 (0.55–0.95)0.71 (0.52–0.96)
Model 31.01.06 (0.81–1.37)0.98 (0.74–1.31)0.89 (0.65–1.21)1.00.77 (0.59–1.00)0.74 (0.57–0.97)0.70 (0.52–0.94)
All-Cause Mortality
# of Events167151139125167151139125
Model 11.00.88 (0.68–1.14)0.80 (0.61–1.05)0.72 (0.53–0.97)1.00.57 (0.45–0.73)0.50 (0.38–0.65)0.46 (0.34–0.62)
Model 21.00.93 (0.71–1.21)0.92 (0.69–1.22)0.84 (0.61–1.14)1.00.60 (0.47–0.77)0.55 (0.42–0.72)0.54 (0.40–0.74)
Model 31.00.88 (0.68–1.14)0.79 (0.61–1.04)0.70 (0.51–0.94)1.00.57 (0.45–0.73)0.50 (0.38–0.65)0.46 (0.34–0.62)
  • Model 1: Adjusted for age, gender, race, diabetic status, history of cardiac disease, years of dialysis, smoking status, urea Kt/V, and dialysis membrane flux assignments, central catheter use, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum intact parathyroid hormone, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum FGF23.

  • Model 2: Adjusted for covariates in Model 1 plus serum albumin, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ.

  • Model 3: Adjusted for covariates in Model 2 plus vitamin D analog administration.

  • Quartile 1 is the reference group in all models.