Table 1.

Necrosis-related DAMPs and alarmins and their PRRs

DAMPs Released byReceptorsReferencesAlarminsReceptorsReferences
CytosolIL-1αIL-1R112,113
 HSPsTLR2/4114IL-33ST2115,116
 Uric acidNLRP3, CLEC12a12,117,118TNF-αTNFR1/2119,120
 S100A, S100BRAGE121Nucleophosmin122
TLR4123,124SAP-130MINCLE125
 F-actinCLEC9A126Granulysin, Defensin cathelicidin, EDN54,127
MitochondriaNeuropeptidePAR2128
 mtDNATLR9129Tryptase130
 ATPNLRP3131,132
 Cytochrome C133
 N-formyl peptideFPR-1129
Nucleus
 DNA, RNA, U1snRNPTLR7/8/9134137
AIM2138
 HMGB1TLR2/4139
 HistonesTLR2/474,103
NLRP3105
 TFAMRAGE140
Necrotic tubule
 UromodulinTLR4, NLRP3141,142
  • HSP, heat shock protein; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; U1snRNP, U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein; HMGB1, high-mobility group box protein 1; TFAM, mitochondrial transcription factor A; CLEC12a, C-type lectin 12a; FPR-1, n-formyl peptide receptor-1; RAGE, receptor for advanced glycation end products; AIM2, absent in melanoma 2; EDN, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin; MINCLE, macrophage inducible Ca++-dependent C-type lectin; PAR2, protease-activated receptor.