Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of men by height quintiles in the United States dialysis population: 1995–2008a

Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
NfAll men<167 cm167–172 cm173–177 cm178–181 cm≥182 cmP value for trend
(n=636,594)(n=118,291)(n=117,543)(n=140,559)(n=129,553)(n=130,648)
Demographics
Age (years)b636,59462.3 (15.4)63.7 (16.0)63.6 (15.5)63 (15.1)62 (15.0)59.3 (15.0)<0.001
Race (%)White636,59468.366.969.269.770.967.20.02
Black636,5942722.224.526.826.831.4<0.001
Asian636,5943.710.05.22.41.30.7<0.001
American Indian/Alaska native636,5941.00.91.101.100.90.7<0.001
Hispanic (%)
Hispanic634,42812.225.017.310.66.53.5<0.001
Primary cause of ESRD (%)
Diabetes636,59442.744.843.742.141.741.5<0.001
Hypertension636,59429.129.729.829.929.028.1<0.001
Glomerulonephritis636,5949.17.98.69.09.59.4<0.001
Cystic kidney disease636,5942.01.31.41.72.22.9<0.001
Other urologic disease636,5942.82.82.62.82.92.80.03
Other cause636,59410.28.99.610.410.711.2<0.001
Unknown cause636,5944.14.54.24.14.04.0<0.001
Comorbid conditions (%)
Diabetes (as comorbid condition)636,59450.251.551.049.849.649.70.07
Hypertension636,58678.877.979.179.078.978.9<0.001
Heart failure636,58032.031.732.532.732.732.1<0.001
Coronary disease636,59427.826.528.629.229.227.4<0.001
Stroke636,5709.49.39.69.99.39.20.2
Peripheral vascular disease636,57315.814.815.616.216.416.8<0.001
Chronic lung disease636,5688.97.98.99.49.69.4<0.001
Malignancy636,5697.26.07.07.67.98.2<0.001
Physical characteristics
Height (cm)a636,594173.9 (9.6)159.5 (7.8)169.3 (1.3)174.2 (1.3)179 (1.2)185.6 (3.6)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)633,63926.9 (6.5)28.4 (7.9)26.5 (6.1)26.5 (6.1)26.4 (6.2)26.2 (6.5)<0.001
Weight (kg)a636,59481.1 (20.6)71.7 (17.7)76.1 (17.5)80.3 (18.6)84.7 (20)90.4 (22.7)<0.001
Lifestyle factors (%)
Alcohol dependence636,5682.22.12.22.32.02.1<0.48
Drug dependence636,5681.51.31.51.61.41.5<0.001
Current smoker636,5706.65.36.26.96.97.1<0.001
Functional status (%)
Inability to walk independently636,5704.65.04.24.34.45.4<0.001
Inability to transfer independently636,5691.92.21.71.71.82.2<0.001
Employment status (%)
Full-time employment636,59410.28.09.09.710.811.2<0.001
Part-time employment636,5942.01.71.92.02.12.0<0.001
Unemployed636,59418.021.518.617.015.715.8<0.001
Homemaker636,5940.10.10.10.10.10.1<0.001
Retired by age636,59442.141.643.944.244.242.8<0.001
Retired because of disability636,59421.120.920.520.720.521.5<0.001
Medical insurance (%)
Medicaid206,25520.127.921.518.816.316.2<0.001
Medicare206,25552.351.152.553.553.553.2<0.001
Employer group health insurance206,25527.121.425.127.430.030.4<0.001
DVA206,2552.91.82.53.33.43.6<0.001
Medicaid advantage206,2554.85.35.44.74.64.3<0.001
Other206,25523.521.223.224.624.924.4<0.001
No insurance206,2558.59.58.98.27.67.8<0.001
Laboratory variables (SD)
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)617,8967.9 (3.8)7.7 (3.7)7.7 (3.7)7.8 (3.7)7.8 (3.7)7.9 (4.0)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73m2)c617,8968.6 (3.9)8.6 (4)8.6 (3.9)8.6 (3.9)8.6 (3.9)8.6 (3.9)<0.001
Serum albumin (mg/l)483,6373.2 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)3.2 (0.7)3.2 (0.7)3.2 (0.7)3.2 (0.7)<0.001
Hematocrit (%)a401,48529.6 (5.5)29.5 (5.5)29.6 (5.5)29.7 (5.5)29.7 (5.4)29.6 (5.5)<0.001
Pre-ESRD care (%)d
Pre-dialysis EPO used636,28827.626.227.427.928.728.2<0.001
Under care of nephrologist206,25556.552.356.057.158.658.1<0.001
Under care of dietitian206,2559.79.39.69.99.910.0<0.01
Dialysis modality (%)e
Peritoneal dialysis636,4727.46.07.07.58.27.7<0.001
Hemodialysis636,47292.694.093.092.591.892.3<0.001
  • a For all variables, apart from age, baseline characteristics are age-standardized across quintile groups using the direct method.

  • b Categorical data are provided as percentage of patients and continuous data as mean±SD.

  • c eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) was based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation measured prior to dialysis onset.36

  • d Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) prior to dialysis initiation was captured from 1995 to 2008. Visit with a nephrologist or dietitian prior to dialysis was recorded from 2005 onwards.

  • e Dialysis modality defined on the first day of chronic regular dialysis.

  • f Number of non-missing patients.