Table 3.

Association of ECG metrics with incident heart failure and myocardial infarction

Heart failureMyocardial infarction
PR interval
 PR<200 ms; HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 PR≥200 ms;a HR (95% CI)1.11 (0.76–1.63)0.53 (0.29–0.98)
 Per 10 ms increase;a HR (95% CI)1.00 (0.95–1.05)0.93 (0.86–1.00)
QRS interval
 QRS<100 ms; HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 QRS 100–119 ms;a HR (95% CI)1.60 (1.14–2.23)1.56 (1.00–2.42)
 QRS≥120 ms;a HR (95% CI)1.37 (0.81–2.31)2.16 (1.14–4.08)
 Per 10 ms increase;a HR (95% CI)1.00 (0.92–1.09)1.09 (0.98–1.21)
QTc interval
 QTc<450 ms M/460 ms W; HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 QTc≥450 ms M/460 ms W;a HR (95% CI)1.59 (1.01–2.50)0.81 (0.40–1.64)
 Per 10 ms increase; HR (95% CI)1.12 (1.05–1.20)1.04 (0.96–1.14)
Heart Rate
 HR<60 bpm; HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 HR 60–90 bpm;a HR (95% CI)1.11 (0.80–1.55)1.23 (0.81–1.89)
 HR≥90 bpm;a HR (95% CI)2.07 (0.95–4.51)2.65 (0.95–7.39)
 Per 50 ms decrease;a HR (95% CI)1.02 (0.96–1.07)1.05 (0.98–1.13)
LVH
 Absent; HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Present;a HR (95% CI)1.20 (0.76–1.88)1.19 (0.64–2.22)
 Per 1 mm increase in Cornell voltage;a HR (95% CI)1.04 (1.02–1.06)1.02 (0.99–1.05)
  • LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy.

  • a The adjusted analysis included the following covariates: age, sex, race, clinical site, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, body mass index, current smoking status, diabetes, eGFR, log (urine total protein excretion), serum calcium, serum phosphate, serum potassium, medication use (β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and statins). In addition, with the exception of the assessed ECG parameter, the adjusted analysis included the other four metrics.