Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of women by height quintiles in the US dialysis population: 1995–2008a

NfQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5
All Women<155 cm155–159 cm160–162 cm163–167 cm≥168 cmP value for trend
(n=535,248)(n=100,726)(n=111,726)(n=74,014)(n=131,304)(n=117,478)
Demographics
Age (years)b535,24863.5 (15.1)66.6 (15.2)64.9 (14.8)64 (14.8)62.9 (14.8)60 (15.1)<0.001
Race (%)White535,24861.765.365.66359.555.4<0.001
Black535,24833.224.227.732.637.442.5<0.001
Asian535,2483.99.25.13.01.91.1<0.001
American Indian/Alaska native535,2481.31.31.61.41.21.0<0.001
Hispanic (%)
Hispanic533,17111.922.316.111.88.24.8<0.001
Primary cause of ESRD (%)
Diabetes535,24848.748.849.348.848.648.1<0.001
Hypertension535,24826.626.726.026.326.325.9<0.001
Glomerulonephritis535,2487.07.27.37.17.07.1<0.001
Cystic kidney disease535,2482.11.41.82.02.32.9<0.001
Other urologic disease535,2481.82.11.91.71.71.7<0.001
Other cause535,24810.39.710.210.610.710.9<0.001
Unknown cause535,2483.54.03.53.53.43.3<0.001
Comorbid conditions (%)
Diabetes (as comorbid condition)535,24856.355.856.656.556.456.0<0.001
Hypertension535,24180.679.780.580.780.680.9<0.001
Heart failure535,23134.634.234.334.634.133.7<0.001
Coronary disease535,24823.523.024.023.423.122.0<0.37
Stroke535,2259.89.19.59.79.910.0<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease535,22713.312.413.013.313.113.8<0.001
Chronic lung disease535,2257.36.87.27.47.37.3<0.001
Malignancy535,2215.44.65.15.85.45.7<0.001
Physical characteristics
Height (cm)a535,248160.6 (8.6)148.3 (7.2)156.6 (1.2)160.2 (0.6)164 (1.3)171.2 (4.2)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)534,95328.2 (8.1)29.6 (9.1)28.2 (7.9)28.2 (7.9)27.9 (7.8)27.6 (7.9)<0.001
Weight (kg)a535,24872.7 (21.6)64.6 (18.5)69.1 (19.4)72.4 (20.3)75.1 (21.1)80.7 (23.4)<0.001
Lifestyle factors (%)
Alcohol dependence535,2210.70.60.70.70.80.7<0.001
Drug dependence535,2210.70.60.70.70.80.9<0.001
Current smoker535,2234.43.64.34.44.75.1<0.001
Functional status (%)
Inability to walk independently535,2235.85.85.25.55.86.5<0.001
Inability to transfer independently535,2222.52.42.12.32.52.8<0.001
Employment status (%)
Full-time employment535,2485.74.75.55.86.36.9<0.001
Part-time employment535,2481.51.41.61.61.61.7<0.001
Unemployed535,24821.724.122.121.921.921.8<0.001
Homemaker535,24810.412.311.710.59.68.5<0.001
Retired by age535,24837.235.236.336.436.335.6<0.001
Retired because of disability535,24817.416.417.117.718.019.1<0.001
Medical insurance (%)
Medicaid163,90231.836.932.430.530.530.5<0.001
Medicare163,90254.851.952.753.753.953.9<0.001
Employer group health insurance163,90223.119.622.624.024.725.8<0.001
DVA163,9020.30.30.30.30.40.4<0.001
Medicaid advantage163,9024.84.64.94.84.44.2>0.52
Other163,90222.421.322.022.622.221.00.001
No insurance163,9026.57.77.06.86.56.3<0.001
Laboratory variables (SD)
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)504,0936.8 (3.1)6.6 (2.9)6.7 (3)6.7 (3.1)6.8 (3.1)6.9 (3.3)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73m2)c504,0937.6 (3.3)7.7 (3.2)7.7 (3.2)7.7 (3.3)7.6 (3.3)7.6 (3.3)<0.001
Serum albumin (mg/l)404,8663.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)>0.60
Hematocrit (%)a346,36129.3 (5.4)29.3 (5.4)29.4 (5.4)29.2 (5.4)29.2 (5.3)29.1 (5.3)<0.001
Pre-ESRD care (%)d
Pre-dialysis EPO used535,03130.830.031.230.830.630.8<0.001
Under care of nephrologist163,90257.055.357.957.657.156.9>0.73
Under care of dietitian163,9028.98.99.49.18.88.4>0.002
Dialysis modality (%)e
Peritoneal dialysis535,1917.67.18.27.97.87.7<0.001
Hemodialysis535,19192.492.991.892.192.292.2<0.001
  • a For all variables, apart from age, baseline characteristics are age-standardized across quintile groups using the direct method.

  • b Categorical data are provided as percentage of patients and continuous data as mean±SD.

  • c eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) was based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation measured prior to dialysis onset.36

  • d Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) prior to dialysis initiation was captured from 1995 to 2008. Visit with a nephrologist or dietitian prior to dialysis was recorded from 2005 onwards.

  • e Dialysis modality defined on the first day of chronic regular dialysis.

  • f Number of non-missing patients.