Table 1.

Characteristics of CARDIA participants by race and APOL1 status at baseline

CharacteristicsHigh-risk Black (n=176)Low-risk Black (n=1154)White (n=1700)P Value Blacks Versus WhitesP Value High Versus Low-risk Blacks
Age34±435±436±3<0.0010.01
Male79 (45%)503 (44%)817 (48%)0.060.75
Income<0.0010.41
 <25k52 (30%)337 (29%)177 (10%)
 25k–49k74 (42%)460 (40%)543 (32%)
 50k-74k37 (21%)223 (19%)444 (26%)
  ≥75k13 (7%)134 (12%)537 (32%)
Education<0.0010.65
 Less than HS8 (5%)73 (6%)38 (2%)
 HS completed47 (27%)297 (26%)225 (13%)
 College or more121 (69%)784 (68%)1438 (85%)
Wealth indicatora64 (39%)419 (39%)905 (55%)<0.0010.88
Life hardship<0.0010.92
 Very hard/hard16 (9%)110 (10%)103 (6%)
 Somewhat hard36 (20%)246 (21%)219 (13%)
 Not hard124 (70%)792 (67%)1377 (81%)
Caretaker education<0.0010.85
 Less than HS33 (19%)221 (19%)153 (9%)
 HS completed72 (41%)493 (43%)621 (37%)
 College or more71 (40%)440 (38%)927 (55%)
Employment status<0.0010.04
 Employed139 (81%)970 (90%)1481 (88%)
 Unemployed31 (18%)132 (12%)106 (6%)
 Homemaker2 (1%)27 (2%)102 (6%)
Hardship obtaining regular care<0.0010.53
 Hard25 (14%)149 (13%)132 (8%)
 Not hard151 (86%)992 (86%)1560 (92%)
 Don’t know0 (0%)7 (0.6%)6 (0.3%)
Hardship paying for care<0.0010.56
 Hard44 (25%)311 (27%)339 (20%)
 Not hard132 (75%)832 (72%)1356 (80%)
 Don’t know0 (0%)5 (0.4%)3 (0.2%)
Smoking53 (30%)341 (30%)324 (19%)<0.000.88
Diabetes11 (6%)91 (8%)85 (5%)0.010.44
Body mass index28.82±7.2129.11±6.9325.98±5.300.000.60
Systolic BP113.81±14.70112.61±13.30107.31±11.160.000.11
Diastolic BP75.18±11.7174.82±10.2870.47±9.25<0.0010.17
eGFRcys ml/min per 1.73 m2111±15113±12109±12<0.0010.04
ACR ≥30 mg/g22 (14%)57 (6%)41 (3%)<0.001<0.001
ACR mg/gb4.52 (31.5–10.66)3.95 (2.72–7.06)3.98 (2.79–6.11)<0.001<0.001
Antihypertensive use12 (7%)55 (5%)19 (1%)<0.0010.25
  • All values are mean±SD, except where otherwise noted. HS, high school.

  • a Wealth indicator was measured by whether a participant reported owning a house or not.

  • b Median (interquartile range).