Table 1.

Hemodynamic patterns of pulmonary hypertension

HyperdynamicbHypervolemicHigh Resistancea
PAP
PCWPnormal/↑normal
COnormalnormal
PVRanormalnormal
Applicability to CKDAVF, anemiaVolume overloadAutoimmune disease
  • PAP, pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; CO, cardiac output; PVR, pulmonary vascular resistance; AVF, arteriovenous fistula.

  • a The pulmonary arterial bed of some of individuals with longstanding hyperdynamic or hypervolemic circulation will remodel, leading to increases in PVR and a hemodynamic profile that exhibits a high resistance pattern that is similar to that seen in group 1 PAH.

  • b High output cardiac failure with associated PH is reported in several clinical entities; most of these are currently classified as group 5.