Table 2.

Examples of specific targets and timing of therapies in experimental models of AKI

Targets, Agents, ModelsTiming of Therapy
PreinsultEarly postinsult (<6 hours)Late postinsult (>6 hours)
Cell membrane
 S1P agonists
  Mouse IRI8688+++
  Rat IRI89+++
 Thromboxane receptor antagonists+
  Mouse (LPS)90++
  Rat IRI91+
 Omega-3 derivatives—resolvins, protectin D1
  Mouse IRI (PD1, 17-OH-DHA)92++++
Endoplasmic reticulum
 EPO rat cisplatin93?
 EET analogues rat cisplatin94+++
Mitochondria
 Mitochondria protectant:
  Cyclosporin A (inhibit MPT): rat IRI++++
  Minocycline (increase Bcl2): rat IRI95+++ (24 hours before)
  mdivi-1 (prevent fission): mouse IR and cisplatin25+++
  Nucleophosmin/Bax blocking peptide: mouse IRI96+++
 Mitochondrial biogenesis stimulators
  Rat IRI (SRT1720)97+
  Mouse folate (sildenafil)98+++
 Mitochondrially targeted antioxidants
  Rat IRI (SS-31)30+++
  Mouse cisplatin (MitoQ, Mito-CP)34+++
Receptors
 Angiopoietin-1 and Tie2 agonists
  Mouse IRI (COMP-Ang1)99+++
  Mouse CLP (vasculotide)100++
 HMGB1 antagonists+
  Mouse 5/6Nx + CLP (Ab)77+++
  Mouse IRI (ethyl pyruvate)101+++
  Mouse IRI (Ab)102+++
  Mouse IRI (rHMGB1 preconditioning)103
 Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists
  Mouse IRI (nicotine)104+++
  Mouse IRI (ultrasound)105+++
  Rat IRI (nicotine)106+++
  Rat IRI (GTS-21)106++
  Mouse LPS (nicotine)107+
  Mouse LPS (GTS-21)107++
 SDF-1-CXCR4 agonists
  Mouse CLP (endothelial progenitor cells)108+++
 Endothelin receptor antagonists
  Dog IRI109+++++++
  Rat IRI110112
 IGF-1
  Rat IRI113,114+++
  Human IRI115+
  • Scoring of protective effect: ++++, complete (≥80%) protection; +++, substantial (50%–79%) protection; ++, partial (30%–49%) protection; +, minor (10%–29%) protection; -: negligible (<10%) protection.