Table 1.

Components of context-specific experimental AKI models

ModelSusceptibilitiesExposureModifiersInterventional Variables
Ischemia-reperfusionAgeAortic cross-clamp:Fluids temperatureTiming: pre-, early post-, late postinsult
GeneticComplete versus partialDose
CKDDuration
Cardiopulmonary bypassAgeDurationPump primeTiming: pre-, early post-, late postinsult
GeneticMannitolDose
CKDLoop diuretics
Temperature
Transfusion
SepsisAgeLPS (type, route, dose)Fluid resuscitation:Timing: pre-, early post-, late postinsult
GeneticCecal ligation and punctureRoute (iv, ip)Dose
CKDPneumoniaVolume
Type (crystalloids, colloids)
Antibiotic therapy
Contrast-induced AKIAgeRadiocontrast type:Fluid resuscitation:Timing: pre-, early post-, late postinsult
GeneticIonic versus nonionicVolumeDose
CKDOsmolalityType (crystalloid choice: saline, bicarbonate)
DMContrast volumeTiming (pre-, during, postcontrast)
ProteinuriaContrast route:
Obesityiv versus ia
Volume depletion