Table 1.

Baseline characteristics

CharacteristicsAll Patients (n=168)Global CFR ≤1.4 (n=81)Global CFR >1.4 (n=87)P Value
Demographics
 Age, yr62 [53–69]64 [55–71]60 [50–66]0.01
 Women66 (39)25 (31)41 (47)0.03
 Race0.17
  White59 (35)35 (43)24 (28)
  Black71 (42)30 (37)41 (47)
  Nonwhite Hispanic24 (14)9 (11)15 (17)
  Other14 (8)7 (9)7 (8)
Renal history
 Medical etiology of CKDa118 (70)59 (73)59 (68)0.48
 Duration of dialysis, yr0.61
  <160 (36)32 (40)28 (32)
  1–345 (27)20 (25)25 (29)
  >363 (38)29 (36)34 (39)
Cardiovascular history
 Any overt CVD72 (43)41 (51)31 (36)0.05
  Myocardial infarction54 (32)30 (37)24 (28)0.19
  PCI28 (17)18 (22)10 (12)0.06
  Coronary artery bypass17 (10)13 (16)4 (5)0.01
  Stroke16 (10)7 (9)9 (10)0.71
  Revascularized PAD7 (4)5 (6)2 (2)0.21
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Diabetes102 (61)52 (64)50 (58)0.37
 Hypertension156 (93)79 (98)77 (89)0.02
 Dyslipidemia103 (61)53 (65.4)50 (57.5)0.29
 BMI, kg/m227 [23–33]27 [24–31]27 [23–34]0.36
 Family history of CAD29 (17)14 (17)15 (17)0.99
 Tobacco use14 (8)6 (7)8 (9)0.68
Medications
 Aspirin93 (55)47 (58)46 (53)0.50
β-Adrenergic blockers121 (72)65 (80)56 (64)0.02
 Statin107 (64)57 (70)50 (58)0.08
 ACE inhibitors/ARB80 (48)34 (42)46 (53)0.16
Serum laboratories
 Phosphorus, mg/dl (n=92)4.8 [3.8–6.1]4.8 [3.7–6.1]4.7 [4.0–6.1]0.89
 Calcium, mg/dl (n=112)9.2 [8.3–9.7]8.7 [8.1–9.7]9.3 [8.6–9.8]0.18
 iPTH, pg/ml (n=79)257 [112–368]255 [86–420]260 [143–346]0.88
Resting hemodynamics
 Heart rate, bpm72 [65–82]70 [63–83]72 [65–80]0.85
 SBP, mmHg150 [128–176]148 [126–172]153 [129–178]0.07
Imaging parameters
 Rest LVEF, %52 [44–60]50 [40–57]54 [46–62]0.004
 BSA–indexed left ventricular mass, g/m2 (n=163)79 [67–92]80 [70–98]77 [66–89]0.03
 Ischemia + scar, % myocardium0 [0–9]6 [0–16]0 [0–3]<0.001
 Ischemia, % myocardium0 [0–4]1 [0–9]0 [0–1]<0.001
 Peak hyperemic MBF, ml/g per minute1.6 [1.2–2.2]1.30 [1.0–1.6]2.0 [1.5–2.8]<0.001
  LAD territory1.7 [1.2–2.3]1.4 [1.0–1.7]2.0 [1.5–3.0]<0.001
  LCx territory1.6 [1.2–2.2]1.2 [1.1–1.6]2.0 [1.5–2.6]<0.001
  RCA territory1.6 [1.1–2.1]1.3 [1.0–1.6]2.0 [1.5–2.7]<0.001
 Rest MBF, ml/g per minute1.1 [0.9–1.4]1.1 [0.9–1.4]1.0 [0.8–1.4]0.67
  LAD territory1.1 [0.9–1.5]1.2 [1.0–1.5]1.1 [0.9–1.5]0.40
  LCx territory1.1 [0.8–1.4]1.1 [0.9–1.3]1.1 [0.8–1.4]0.91
  RCA territory1.1 [0.8–1.4]1.1 [0.8–1.4]1.0 [0.8–1.4]0.91
 LAD CFR1.4 [1.2–1.8]1.2 [1.0–1.3]1.8 [1.5–2.1]<0.001
 LCx CFR1.4 [1.2–1.8]1.2 [1.0–1.3]1.8 [1.5–2.0]<0.001
 RCA CFR1.5 [1.2–1.8]1.2 [1.0–1.4]1.8 [1.5–2.2]<0.001
  • Continuous variables are presented as medians with IQRs or means±SDs. Binary variables are presented as absolute numbers and percentages. CVD, cardiovascular disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; SBP, systolic BP; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; BSA, body surface area; LAD, left anterior descending coronary artery; LCx, left circumflex coronary artery; RCA, right coronary artery.

  • a Medical etiology of CKD refers to CKD resulting primarily from hypertension, diabetes, and/or heart failure.