Table 1.

Metabolic parameters, renal function, BP, and requirements for antihypertensive treatment in study arms

Parameter and Study MomentKD (n=104)LPD (n=103)P Valuec
Renal function
 eGFR (ml/min)
  Baseline18.0 (15.5 to 20.1)17.9 (14.3 to 19.3)0.68
  End of study15.1 (13.2 to 17.4)10.8 (9.0 to 12.2)<0.01
 Proteinuria (g/d)a
  Baseline0.88 (0.79 to 0.96)0.88 (0.82 to 0.96)0.73
  End of study0.78 (0.67 to 0.85)0.67 (0.57 to 0.81)0.06
BPb
 Mean arterial BP (mmHg)
  Baseline86 (78 to 96)93 (86 to 96)0.06
  End of study90 (86 to 92)87 (83 to 93)0.42
 Patients with optimal BP controlc (%)
  Baseline91890.67
  End of study85840.95
 Patients on antihypertensive drugs (%)
  Baseline86890.55
  End of study88930.24
 Patients receiving ACEIs and/or ARBs (%)
  Baseline71710.96
  End of study71700.84
Nitrogen waste products
 Serum urea (mg/dl)d
  Baseline187 (164 to 225)213 (183 to 248)0.73
  End of study122 (114 to 127)226 (191 to 252)<0.01
 Serum uric acid (mg/dl)e
  Baseline6.5 (6.5 to 6.6)6.3 (6.2 to 6.3)0.06
  End of study6.0 (5.8 to 6.1)6.3 (6.1 to 6.4)0.01
Acid-base balance
 Serum bicarbonate (mEq/L)
  Baseline16.7 (15.8 to 17.6)16.8 (15.9 to 17.8)0.98
  End of study22.9 (21.7 to 24.1)16.2 (15.4 to 16.9)<0.01
Sodium bicarbonate supplementation
 Patients treated (%)
  Baseline36400.53
  End of study2951<0.01
 Prescribed dose (g/d)
  Baseline2.0 (2.0 to 2.4)2.0 (1.6 to 2.4)0.63
  End of study2.2 (2.0 to 2.6)3.2 (2.4 to 3.6)0.03
Calcium-phosphorus metabolism
 Serum calcium (mg/dl)
  Baseline3.8 (3.7 to 3.9)3.8 (3.7 to 4.0)0.61
  End of study4.4 (4.3 to 4.5)3.9 (3.7 to 3.9)<0.01
 Serum phosphates (mg/dl)
  Baseline5.9 (5.3 to 6.2)5.8 (5.2 to 6.1)0.68
  End of study4.4 (4.3 to 4.5)6.2 (5.8 to 6.5)<0.01
Calcium supplementation
 Patients treated (%)
  Baseline46400.35
  End of study49510.72
 Prescribed dose (g/d)
  Baseline6.1 (5.7 to 6.5)6.0 (5.6 to 6.5)0.91
  End of study6.3 (6.0 to 6.6)6.9 (6.6 to 7.3)<0.01
 Vitamin D therapy (patients %)
  Baseline22300.19
  End of study2254<0.01
  • Values at randomization were compared with those at the end of the study (i.e., reach of the EPP or end of the follow-up period). Data are shown as median and 95% CI. To convert eGFR in milliliters per minute to milliliters per second, multiply by 0.01667. To convert serum urea in milligrams per deciliter to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.357. To convert serum urea in milligrams per deciliter to BUN in milligrams per deciliter, divide by 2.14. To convert serum creatinine in milligrams per deciliter to ± moles per liter, multiply by 88.4. To convert serum bicarbonate in equivalents per liter to millimoles per liter, multiply by 1. To convert serum calcium in milligrams per deciliter to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.2495. To convert serum phosphates in milligrams per deciliter to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.3229. To convert serum albumin in grams per deciliter to grams per liter, multiply by 10.

  • a See also Supplementary Figure 1.

  • b See also Supplementary Figure 2.

  • c Arterial BP<130/75 mmHg.

  • d See also Supplementary Figure 3.

  • e See also Supplementary Figure 4.