Table 1.

Characteristics of black and white adults who received a first KT in the United States 1990–2012

Recipient CharacteristicsOverall Study Period 1990–2012Earliest Cohort 1990–1992Most Recent Cohort 2010–2012
White (n=145,482)Blacka (n=63,910)White (n=15,009)Blacka (n=5043)White (n=20,559)Blacka (n=10,948)
Age, mean (SD)49.3 (13.8)47.3 (13)43.2 (12.9)41.5 (12.1)53.9 (13.7)50.9 (12.6)
Sex, female %38.541.140.14037.541.5
Primary insurance, %
 Employer group4926.929.18.84625
 Medicare46.665.663.777.250.568.8
 Medicaid2.55.54.471.94.2
 No coverage0.30.11.700.20.1
 Other coverage1.61.91.171.41.9
Cause of ESRD, %
 Diabetes22.320.72415.824.528.3
 Hypertension14.1428.23617.740.8
 Glomerular diseases25.821.830.429.923.120.3
 Cystic diseases14.43.412.62.716.14.1
 Other causes23.412.124.815.618.66.5
Body mass index, %
 <30 kg/m273.567.78781.362.357.9
 30–34.9 kg/m217.920.89.212.924.425.6
 >34.9 kg/m28.611.53.85.813.316.5
RRT, median years (IQR)1.2 (0.3–2.6)3 (1.5–5)1 (0.4–2)1.9 (1–3.3)3.9 (2–6)1.7 (0.5–3.4)
Pre-emptive transplant, %195.2134.925.66.7
Peak PRA/CPRA, median (IQR)0 (0–8)3 (0–20)2 (0–8)3 (0–13)0 (0–20)0 (0–8)
Donor characteristics
 Living donor, %43.521.927.413.647.719.8
 Donor age, mean (SD)39.1 (15)37.2 (15.6)34.3 (15.5)32 (15.4)41.7 (14.4)38.9 (15)
 Donor sex, female %48.943.843.138.251.444.4
 Donor race, black %4.835.44.8306.432.8
Characteristics – deceased donor transplants only
 Donor history of hypertension, %19.122.90030.530.5
 Donation after circulatory death, %6.27.20016.914.9
 Zero HLA mismatch, %15.54.17.20.99.52.4
 Cold ischemia time, median hours (IQR)18.2 (14–24.6)18.2 (13.7–24.1)23 (16–31)23 (16–31)15.9 (10.6–21.1)16.5 (11.5–22.5)
  • Results were calculated based upon complete data from study participants. Complete data were available from 209,392 (100%) of participants for the following variables: recipient age, recipient sex, time on RRT, pre-emptive transplant, donor type, donor age, donor sex, donor race, and cold ischemia time. The following variables were missing in some of the study participants, although this was mostly limited to the earliest time periods (1990–1994): recipient primary insurance (13.7% missing overall; 0.2% missing in 1995–2012), recipient cause of ESRD (0.1% missing overall; 0.1% missing in 1995–2012), recipient body mass index (3.4% missing overall; 1.9% missing in 1995–2012), peak PRA/CPRA (1% missing overall; 0.8% missing in 1995–2012), donor history of hypertension (17.2% missing overall; 1% missing in 1995–2012), donation after circulatory death (6.6% missing overall; 0.2% missing in 1995–2012), and HLA mismatches (0.7% missing overall; 0.6% missing in 1995–2012). IQR, interquartile range; PRA, panel reactive antibody; CPRA, calculated panel reactive antibody.

  • a There were statistically significant differences (P<0.001) in study characteristics for every comparison between blacks and whites.