Table 1.

Comparison among sources of KSPCs

FeaturesnKSPCAFSCaUPC
CollectionNoninvasiveMinimally invasiveNoninvasive
Possible no. of collectionsMultipleMostly 1Multiple
Ethical concernsVery lowLowVery low
Probability of colony per sample, %>50100Approximately 36
Passages in culture>21a>15aApproximately 8b
MSC markers+++
HSC markers
Origin of progenitorsRenalMultipleRenal
  • MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; —, no expression.

  • a Cells maintained proliferation capacity above this passage number.

  • b Cell proliferation was arrested above this passage number.