Table 4.

Duration of exposure to PPI and risk of renal outcomes among new users of PPI (n=173,321)

DurationLess or Equal to 30 Days31–90 Days91–180 Days181–360 Days361–720 Days>720 days
Incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2n (%)25,912 (14.95)31,192 (18.00)18,889 (10.90)20,770 (11.98)23,446 (13.53)53,112 (30.64)
HR (95% CI)11.94 (1.88 to 2.00)2.30 (2.22 to 2.39)2.65 (2.56 to 2.74)2.75 (2.66 to 2.85)1.95 (1.87 to 2.02)
Incident CKDn (%)23,621 (13.63)29,886 (17.24)18,338 (10.58)20,148 (11.62)23,293 (13.44)58,035 (33.48)
HR (95% CI)11.82 (1.74 to 1.89)2.00 (1.91 to 2.10)2.16 (2.06 to 2.26)1.96 (1.87 to 2.06)0.84 (0.79 to 0.89)
Doubling of serum creatininen (%)19,602 (11.31)27,234 (15.71)16,989 (9.80)19,116 (11.03)23,603 (13.62)66,777 (38.53)
HR (95% CI)11.22 (1.13 to 1.30)1.50 (1.39 to 1.62)1.74 (1.61 to 1.87)1.99 (1.85 to 2.14)1.47 (1.37 to 1.59)
>30% decline in eGFRn (%)22,751 (13.13)29,291 (16.90)18,209 (10.51)20,444 (11.80)24,371 (14.06)58,255 (33.61)
HR (95% CI)11.76 (1.70 to 1.83)2.31 (2.22 to 2.40)2.87 (2.76 to 2.99)3.48 (3.34 to 3.61)3.29 (3.17 to 3.42)
ESRDn (%)18,529 (10.69)26,469 (15.27)16,649 (9.61)18,792 (10.84)23,500 (13.56)69,382 (40.03)
HR (95% CI)11.04 (0.70 to 1.56)1.80 (1.18 to 2.75)2.04 (1.33 to 3.12)3.12 (2.07 to 4.71)2.25 (1.46 to 3.47)
ESRD or >50% decline in eGFRn (%)19,799 (11.42)27,349 (15.78)17,105 (9.87)19,248 (11.11)23,695 (13.67)66,125 (38.15)
HR (95% CI)11.23 (1.16 to 1.31)1.57 (1.47 to 1.69)1.85 (1.72 to 1.98)2.13 (1.99 to 2.28)1.58(1.47 to 1.69)
  • HRs were obtained from Cox models adjusted for PPI duration, baseline eGFR, age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hepatitis C, HIV, dementia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, Barrett esophagus, achalasia, stricture, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  • Beginning of follow up (T0) was defined as the date of last use of PPI before event occurrence.

  • PPI duration was computed between first PPI prescription date and T0.