Table 2.

Association between PPI and risk of eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and risk of CKD

OutcomeH2 Blockers (n=20,270)PPI (n=173,321)
Incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2Number of events (%)4,429 (21.85)48,171 (27.79)
Incident rate (95% CI)5408.24 (5248.96 to 5567.52)7241.27 (7176.61 to 7305.94)
HR (95% CI)1.01.22 (1.18 to 1.26)
Incident chronic kidney diseaseNumber of events (%)2,234 (11.02)26,193 (15.11)
Incident rate (95% CI)2569.86 (2463.30 to 2676.43)3683.12 (3638.52 to 3727.72)
HR (95% CI)1.01.28 (1.23 to 1.34)
  • Incident rate as incident per 100,000 person-years.

  • HRs were obtained from Cox models adjusted for baseline eGFR, age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hepatitis C, HIV, dementia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, Barrett esophagus, achalasia, stricture, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.