Table 3.

Association between PPI and risk of kidney disease progression and risk of ESRD

OutcomeH2 Blockers (n=20,270)PPI (n=173,321)
Doubling of serum creatinineNumber of events (%)759 (3.74)10,766 (6.21)
Incident rate (95% CI)816.98 (758.86 to 875.10)1387.02 (1360.81 to 1413.22)
HR (95% CI)1.01.53 (1.42 to 1.65)
>30% decline in eGFRNumber of events (%)3,949 (19.48)43,842 (25.30)
Incident rate (95% CI)4533.25 (4391.86 to 4674.64)6170.27 (6112.51 to 6228.03)
HR (95% CI)1.01.32 (1.28 to 1.37)
ESRDNumber of events (%)25 (0.12)329 (0.19)
Incident rate (95% CI)26.50 (16.11 to 36.88)41.25 (36.79 to 45.70)
HR (95% CI)1.01.96 (1.21 to 3.18)
ESRD or >50% decline in eGFRNumber of events (%)947 (4.67)12,952 (7.47)
Incident rate (95% CI)1024.27 (959.03 to 1089.51)1679.40 (1650.48 to 1708.32)
HR (95% CI)1.01.47 (1.38 to 1.57)
  • Incident rate as incident per 100,000 person-years.

  • HRs were obtained from Cox models adjusted for baseline eGFR, age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hepatitis C, HIV, dementia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, Barrett esophagus, achalasia, stricture, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.