Table 6.

Risk of renal events in a 1:1 propensity matched cohort of new PPI users (173,321) and a control group (n=173,321)

OutcomeControl (n=173,321)PPI (n=173,321)
Incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2Number (%)35,759 (20.63)48,171 (27.79)
Incident rate (95% CI)5105.97 (5053.05 to 5158.90)7241.27 (7176.61 to 7305.93)
HR (95% CI)1.01.57 (1.54 to 1.60)
Incident CKDNumber (%)17,426 (10.05)26,193 (15.11)
Incident rate (95% CI)2359.99 (2323.96 to 2394.01)3683.12 (3638.52 to 3727.72)
HR (95% CI)1.01.81 (1.76 to 1.86)
Doubling of serum creatinineNumber (%)6,039 (3.48)10,766 (6.21)
Incident rate (95% CI)770.38 (750.95 to 789.81)1387.02 (1360.81 to 1413.22)
HR (95% CI)1.01.86 (1.80 to 1.93)
>30% decline in eGFRNumber (%)31,781 (18.34)43,842 (25.30)
Incident rate (95% CI)4255.67 (4208.88 to 4302.46)6170.27 (6112.51 to 6228.03)
HR (95% CI)1.01.67 (1.64 to 1.70)
ESRDNumber (%)219 (0.13)329 (0.19)
Incident rate (95% CI)27.60 (23.94 to 31.25)41.25 (36.79 to 45.70)
HR (95% CI)1.01.61 (1.26 to 2.04)
ESRD or >50% decline in eGFRNumber (%)7,410 (4.28)12,952 (7.47)
Incident rate (95% CI)949.13 (927.52 to 970.74)1679.40 (1650.48 to 1708.32)
HR (95% CI)1.01.83 (1.77 to 1.89)
  • Incident rate as incident per 100,000 person-years.

  • HRs were obtained from Cox models adjusted for baseline eGFR, age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hepatitis C, HIV, dementia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, ulcer disease, H. pylori infection, Barrett esophagus, achalasia, stricture, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.