Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the DHS participants (n=3450)

CharacteristicBlack (n=1788)White (n=1004)Hispanic (n=588)P Value
Male, n (%)755 (42.2)474 (47.2)a245 (41.7)c0.02
Mean age (yr)44.8 (±10.2)44.9 (±10.0)40.2 (±9.1)b,c<0.001
Mean BMI (kg/m2)31.7 (±8.2)29 (±6.6)a30.3 (±6.5)b,c<0.001
Obesity, n (%)786 (52.4)330 (35.8)a241 (48.2)c<0.001
Mean fasting glucose (mg/dl)91 (±11.7)91.3 (±10.3)a94 (±10.5)b,c<0.001
Mean HOMA-IR (U)4.6 (±4.8)3.5 (±4.1)a4.4 (±4.3)b,c<0.001
Diabetes, n (%)254 (14.2)67 (6.7)a68 (11.6)c<0.001
Mean systolic BP (mmHg)130.2 (±20.0)119.9 (±15.4)a118.6 (±17.0)b<0.001
Mean diastolic BP (mmHg)81 (±10.6)75.9 (±8.8)a74.6 (±9.2)b<0.001
Hypertension, n (%)503 (28.2)115 (11.5)a61 (10.4)b<0.001
Median ACR (mg/g)3.1 (1.8 to 6.6)2.6 (1.8 to 4.1)a3.1 (2.1 to 5.2)c<0.001
Median GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)102.4 (88.0 to 116.8)90.3 (80.5 to 101.9)a104 (93.1 to 120.0)c<0.001
CKD, n (%)
 All (n=3262)207 (12)46 (4.8)a36 (6.3)0.002
 Nondiabetic (n=2878)129 (8.7)31 (3.5)a22 (4.4)0.002
 Diabetic (n=384)78 (31.2)15 (22.4)14 (20.9)0.51
Microalbuminuria, n (%)
 All (n=3256)181 (10.5)33 (3.4)a35 (6.1)c<0.001
 Nondiabetic (n=2872)112 (7.6)20 (2.2)a21 (4.2)c<0.001
 Diabetic (n=383)69 (27.7)13 (19.4)14 (20.9)0.70
GFR<60, n (%)
 All (n=3379)55 (3.1)19 (1.9)3 (0.5)b0.02
 Nondiabetic (n=2990)38 (2.5)13 (1.4)1 (0.2)b0.01
 Diabetic (n=389)17 (6.7)6 (9.0)2 (2.9)0.32
GFR<30, n (%)14 (0.8)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)0.09
Mean total cholesterol (mg/dl)177.9 (±40.2)183.9 (±38.6)a182 (±40)b<0.001
Mean LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)104.8 (±36.6)108.4 (±34.5)a107.1 (±33.3)b<0.001
Mean HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)52.3 (±15.3)48.6 (±15.2)a45.7 (±11.2)b,c<0.001
Median triglycerides (mg/dl)85 (62 to 123)109 (75 to 166)a119 (81 to 176)b,c<0.001
Mean total lipoprotein HDL particles (nmol/L)33 (±6.4)33.8 (±6.4)a32.2 (±5.8)c<0.001
Mean lipoprotein large HDL (nmol/L)7.3 (±4.0)6.1 (±4.0)a5.8 (±3.2)b<0.001
Mean lipoprotein medium HDL (nmol/L)3.9 (±4.1)5.6 (±5.2)a4.9 (±4.9)b,c<0.001
Mean lipoprotein small HDL (nmol/L)21.7 (±5.8)22.2 (±6.0)a21.4 (±5.5)0.02
Mean HDL lipoprotein particle size (nm)9.1 (±0.5)8.9 (±0.4)a8.9 (±0.4)b<0.001
Median CRP (mg/L)3.6 (1.4 to 8.4)2.3 (0.9 to 4.9)a2.8 (1.3 to 6.3)c<0.001
Median IL-6 (pg/ml)16.9 (0.0 to 35.8)18.8 (0.0 to 41.6)a15.1 (0.0 to 29.1)b,c<0.001
Median IL-18 (mg/L)498 (336.5 to 750)561 (407 to 832)a532 (364.5 to 763)b<0.001
Median IL1AP (ng/ml)5428 (3916 to 7561)6241 (4357 to 8602)a5637 (4132 to 7811)c<0.001
Median TNFR1A (ng/ml)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)a0.6 (0.4 to 0.8)0.05
CXCL1>0 ng/ml, n (%)241 (15.0)35 (3.8)a43 (8.1)b,c<0.001
CXCL2>0 ng/ml, n (%)521 (32.3)276 (30.1)114 (21.4)b,c<0.001
Median CXCL10 (ng/ml)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)a0.3 (0.2–0.5)b,c<0.001
Median CD40 ligand (ng/ml)1.4 (0.8–2.6)1.4 (0.8 to 2.3)1.4 (0.8–2.4)0.58
Mean plasma APOA1 (μM)64.1 (±18.4)61.5 (±17.9)a60.5 (±16.2)b<0.001
Mean plasma total APOL1 (nM)862.5 (±296.8)627.2 (±209.5)a695.5 (±235.5)b,c<0.001
  • Data are shown as mean (±SD), median (25th to 75th percentile), or n (%), as indicated. Characteristics are compared across ethnic groups using linear regression for continuous data and logistic regression for categorical data. Models are adjusted for age, gender, BMI, systolic BP, and diabetes, where appropriate. Obesity is defined as BMI>30 kg/m2. Microalbuminuria, ACR≥17 mg/g in men or ≥25 mg/g in women. CKD is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria and/or GFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; CRP, C-reactive protein; CXCL, C-X-C motif ligand; CD40, cluster of differentiation 40.

  • a European Americans differ from black participants at P<0.05.

  • b Hispanic participants differ from black participants at P<0.05.

  • c Hispanic participants differ from white participants at P<0.05.