Table 2.

Characteristics of black participants of the DHS by the number of APOL1 risk alleles (n=1736)

Characteristic0 copies1 copy2 copiesP ValueP Value
(n=667)(n=837)(n=232)(additive model)(recessive model)
Male, n (%)276 (41.4)351 (41.9)103 (44.4)0.490.45
Mean age (yr)44.6 (±10.3)44.9 (±10.5)45.5 (±9.4)0.250.34
Mean BMI (kg/m2)32 (±8.5)31.9 (±8.3)31.5 (±7.6)0.750.74
Mean fasting glucose (mg/dl)91.5 (±11.3)90.8 (±11.7)90.1 (±12.2)0.040.14
Mean HOMA-IR (U)4.7 (±4.7)4.6 (±4.5)4.4 (±6.0)0.060.22
Diabetes, n (%)95 (14.2)122 (14.6)27 (11.6)0.170.23
Mean systolic BP (mmHg)130.4 (±20.5)129.3 (±19.5)132.6 (±20.4)0.320.02
Mean diastolic BP (mmHg)81.1 (±10.8)80.5 (±10.4)82 (±10.6)0.500.07
Hypertension, n (%)192 (28.8)215 (25.7)80 (34.6)0.42<0.01
Median ACR (mg/g)
 All (n=1674)2.9 (1.8 to 5.8)3.0 (1.8 to 6.1)4.1 (2.1 to 11.2)0.003<0.001
 Nondiabetic (n=1434)2.8 (1.7 to 5.0)2.9 (1.7 to 5.2)4.0 (2.1 to 10.8)0.001<0.001
 Diabetic (n=240)5.3 (2.4 to 24.2)7.0 (2.4 to 30.0)7.3 (2.7 to 18.6)0.500.80
Median GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
 All (n=1736)103.0 (88.2 to 117.4)101.7 (88.1 to 116.1)101.7 (86.1 to 115.0)0.180.15
 Nondiabetic (n=1492)103.8 (90.0 to 117.6)101.7 (88.4 to 115.5)101.9 (86.2 to 115.0)0.050.09
 Diabetic (n=244)98.1 (80.2 to 116.0)101.3 (82.7 to 121.7)101.3 (87.6 to 114.8)0.190.69
CKD, n (%)
 All (n=1680)63 (9.8)89 (11)46 (20.3)<0.001<0.001
 Nondiabetic (n=1439)34 (6.2)51 (7.4)39 (19.5)<0.001<0.001
 Diabetic (n=241)29 (30.5)38 (31.9)7 (25.9)0.890.46
Microalbuminuria, n (%)
 All (n=1674)56 (8.7)77 (9.5)39 (17.4)0.001<0.001
 Nondiabetic (n=1434)30 (5.5)45 (6.5)32 (16.2)<0.001<0.001
 Diabetic (n=240)26 (27.4)32 (27.1)7 (25.9)0.910.71
GFR<60, n (%)
 All (n=1736)16 (2.4)23 (2.7)15 (6.5)0.010.002
 Nondiabetic (n=1492)11 (1.9)12 (1.7)14 (6.8)0.004<0.001
 Diabetic (n=244)5 (5.3)11 (9.0)1 (3.7)0.990.42
GFR<30, n (%)5 (0.7)3 (0.4)6 (2.6)0.080.003
Mean total cholesterol (mg/dl)177.2 (±37.4)180.1 (±43.1)173 (±37.3)0.280.01
Mean LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)104.8 (±34.3)106.2 (±38.9)100.7 (±35.1)0.270.03
Mean HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)52.2 (±15.3)52.3 (±15.5)52.7 (±15.1)0.530.74
Median triglycerides (mg/dl)85 (61 to 120)87 (63 to 125)79 (61 to 125)0.950.20
Mean total lipoprotein HDL particles (nmol/L)32.8 (±6.6)33.3 (±6.3)33 (±6.4)0.630.46
Mean lipoprotein large HDL (nmol/L)7.4 (±4)7.3 (±3.9)7.5 (±4.2)0.340.31
Mean lipoprotein medium HDL (nmol/L)4 (±4.2)4 (±4)3.8 (±3.9)0.690.64
Mean lipoprotein small HDL (nmol/L)21.4 (±5.9)22 (±5.6)21.6 (±6.3)0.700.30
Mean HDL lipoprotein particle size (nm)9.1 (±0.5)9.1 (±0.5)9.1 (±0.5)0.300.13
Median CRP (mg/L)3.5 (1.4 to 8.3)3.8 (1.4 to 8.5)3.5 (1.5 to 7.7)0.790.67
Median IL-6 (pg/ml)16.4 (0 to 34.9)17.6 (0 to 37.4)17.8 (0 to 32.1)0.590.92
Median IL-18 (mg/L)498 (332 to 748)505.5 (339 to 769)480 (338 to 752)0.510.75
Median IL1AP (ng/ml)5325 (3837 to 7315)5475 (3896 to 7905)5550 (4214 to 7230)0.210.55
Median TNFR1A (ng/ml)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)0.6 (0.4 to 0.8)0.890.51
CXCL1>0 ng/ml, n (%)96 (15.9)104 (13.8)36 (17.5)0.980.31
CXCL2>0 ng/ml, n (%)188 (31)248 (33)68 (32.9)0.470.81
Median CXCL10 (ng/ml)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)0.450.36
Median CD40 ligand (ng/ml)1.3 (0.8 to 2.4)1.4 (0.8 to 2.7)1.4 (0.8 to 2.6)0.810.98
Mean plasma APOA1 (μM)63.8 (±18.4)64.3 (±18.3)64.7 (±18.6)0.330.65
Mean plasma total APOL1 (nM)887.1 (±300.8)862.1 (±296.2)797.6 (±283.5)<0.001<0.001
  • Data are shown as mean (±SD), median (25th to 75th percentile), or n (%), as indicated. Characteristics are compared across genotypes using linear regression for continuous data and logistic regression for categorical data. Models are adjusted for age, gender, BMI, systolic BP, and diabetes, where appropriate. Microalbuminuria, ACR≥17 mg/g in men or ≥25 mg/g in women. CKD is defined as the presence of microalbuminuria and/or GFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; CRP, C-reactive protein; CXCL, C-X-C motif ligand; CD40, cluster of differentiation 40.