Table 1.

Baseline characteristics among CRIC participants stratified by race/ethnicity.

Variable, n (%)Hispanic 
(n=497)NHW 
(n=1638)NHB 
(n=1650)Hispanic versus 
NHW P ValueHispanic versus 
NHB P Value
Age, yra56.3±11.758.9±11.058.1±10.6<0.0010.001
Male288 (58.0)982 (60.0)806 (48.9)0.430.001
Education
 Less than high school293 (59.0)90 (5.5)437 (26.5)<0.001<0.001
 High school graduate71 (14.3)291 (17.8)366 (22.2)
 Some college78 (15.7)467 (28.5)567 (34.4)
 College graduate or more55 (11.1)790 (48.2)280 (17.0)
Income
 ≤$20,000313 (63.0)254 (15.5)646 (39.2)<0.001<0.001
 $20,001–$50,00092 (18.5)416 (25.4)417 (25.3)
 $50,000–$100,00024 (4.8)455 (27.8)215 (13.0)
 >$100,00012 (2.4)295 (18.0)62 (3.8)
 Don't wish to answer56 (11.3)218 (13.3)310 (18.8)
Presence of Health Insurance
 Yes329 (74.4)1446 (96.8)1340 (93.3)<0.001<0.001
 No113 (25.6)48 (3.2)96 (6.7)
Type of Health Insurance
 Any Medicare84 (19.0)96 (6.4)327 (22.8)<0.001<0.001
 Medicaid/public aid121 (27.4)564 (37.8)494 (34.4)
 VA/military/CHAMPUS9 (2.0)73 (4.9)110 (7.7)
 Private/commercial68 (15.4)284 (19.0)190 (13.2)
 Unknown/incomplete47 (10.6)429 (28.7)219 (15.3)
 None113 (25.6)48 (3.2)96 (6.7)
Nephrology Care
 Yes265 (53.3)1131 (69.0)1107 (67.1)<0.001<0.001
 No232 (46.7)507 (31.0)543 (32.9)
History of Smoking
 Current smoking29 (5.8)155 (9.5)320 (19.4)<0.001<0.001
 Past smoking189 (38.0)765 (46.7)635 (38.5)
BMI, kg/m2a31.6±6.631.2±7.633.4±8.30.23<0.001
Hypertension443 (89.1)1293 (78.9)1533 (92.9)<0.0010.01
Diabetes335 (67.4)649 (39.6)848 (51.4)<0.001<0.001
MI/Prior revascularization90 (18.1)376 (23.0)361 (21.9)0.020.07
Congestive heart failure37 (7.4)117 (7.1)217 (13.2)0.820.001
Peripheral vascular disease35 (7.0)105 (6.4)117 (7.1)0.620.97
Systolic BP, mmHga136.1±23.7121.8±18.6132.9±23.1<0.0010.01
Controlled BP, <130/80 mmHgb142 (32.1)744 (57.5)589 (38.4)<0.0010.02
HbA1ca7.0±1.76.3±1.36.9±1.7<0.0010.18
Controlled diabetes, HbA1c<7%c48 (14.3)101 (15.6)93 (11.0)0.610.12
ACEi/ARB use332 (67.3)1089 (66.9)1164 (71.1)0.870.11
eGFR, ml/min per m2a39.0±15.247.7±17.143.5±16.3<0.001<0.001
Urine protein, g/24 hd0.71 (0.12, 3.34)0.12 (0.07, 0.5)0.24 (0.08, 1.07)<0.001<0.001
  • VA, veterans affairs; CHAMPUS, civilian health and medical program of the uniformed services; MI, myocardial infarction.

  • a Mean±SD.

  • b Denominator is participants with hypertension only.

  • c Denominator is participants with diabetes only.

  • d Median (interquartile range).