Table 3.

Adjusted association of selected metabolites with cognitive test scores in discovery cohort

Cognitive Test4-hydroxyphenylacetate per SD Increase in LogPhenylacetylglutamine per SD Increase in LogHippurate per SD Increase in LogProlyl-hydroxyproline per SD Increase in Log
β±SEMP Valueβ±SEMP Valueβ±SEMP Valueβ±SEMP Value
Executive function
 Trail Making Test Part B2.6±5.60.6514.4±5.40.01a9.4±5.80.113.0±5.50.58
 Digit Symbol Substitution−2.2±1.40.13-4.9±1.4<0.001a-3.5±1.50.02a0.7±1.40.65
Attention and psychomotor speed
 Trail Making Test Part A2.3±2.10.293.4±2.10.102.1±2.20.351.2±2.10.57
 Pegboard, dominant hand6.1±4.90.218.6±4.40.05a2.8±4.80.565.3±4.70.26
 Pegboard, nondominant hand7.8±5.60.1710.3±4.60.03a2.0±4.90.693.1±4.80.52
Language and memory
 Controlled Oral Word Association−0.01±1.20.99−1.3±1.20.30−1.4±1.20.241.2±1.80.31
 Rey Auditory Verbal Learning, delayed recall−0.2±0.30.45-0.6±0.30.03a-0.6±0.30.05a−0.1±0.30.74
  • Models are adjusted for age, vintage, education, language, modality, and stroke. The Trail Making Test Part B, Trail Making Test Part A, and the Pegboard test are timed tests measured in seconds. A positive parameter estimate indicates poorer cognitive function. The Digit Symbol Substitution, Controlled Oral Word Association, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning tests are scored as the number of correct responses. A negative parameter estimate indicates poorer cognitive function.

  • a Uncorrected P value <0.05.