Table 3.

Hazard ratios (95% CI) for risk of ESRD according to food sources of protein (n=60,198)

Food Sources of Protein (g/d)Quartiles of Energy-Adjusted Food IntakeP for Trenda
Q1Q2Q3Q4
Red meat
 Cases194220267270
 Person-years236,141236,256230,243230,006
 Multivariate model 11.001.11 (0.91–1.35)1.39 (1.16–1.68)1.47 (1.22–1.77)<0.001
 Multivariate model 21.001.01 (0.83–1.24)1.29 (1.06–1.56)1.36 (1.13–1.64)<0.001
 Multivariate model 31.001.03 (0.84–1.26)1.32 (1.07–1.61)1.40 (1.15–1.71)<0.001
Poultry
 Cases232243253223
 Person-years230,852232,599232,016237,180
 Multivariate model 11.001.02 (0.85–1.22)1.14 (0.95–1.36)1.07 (0.89–1.29)0.37
 Multivariate model 21.000.92 (0.77–1.12)1.04 (0.86–1.26)0.99 (0.82–1.20)0.77
 Multivariate model 31.000.88 (0.72–1.06)0.95 (0.78–1.16)0.90 (0.74–1.09)0.49
Fish and shellfish
 Cases204251237259
 Person-years229,112231,006235,816236,713
 Multivariate model 11.001.21 (1.01–1.46)1.14 (0.94–1.37)1.27 (1.06–1.53)0.03
 Multivariate model 21.001.16 (0.96–1.39)1.06 (0.87–1.27)1.12 (0.93–1.34)0.44
 Multivariate model 31.001.12 (0.93–1.35)1.01 (0.84–1.23)1.07 (0.89–1.30)0.71
Eggs
 Cases228261242220
 Person-years235,386235,980232,203229,078
 Multivariate model 11.001.12 (0.94–1.34)1.09 (0.91–1.30)1.03 (0.86–1.24)0.95
 Multivariate model 21.001.08 (0.89–1.30)1.07 (0.88–1.30)1.06 (0.87–1.28)0.68
 Multivariate model 31.001.04 (0.86–1.26)1.02 (0.84–1.23)1.00 (0.83–1.22)0.94
Dairy products
 Cases212249246244
 Person-years237,538238,186226,046230,876
 Multivariate model 11.001.12 (0.93–1.35)1.17 (0.97–1.41)1.20 (0.99–1.45)0.18
 Multivariate model 21.001.03 (0.84–1.26)1.14 (0.93–1.41)1.09 (0.90–1.32)0.56
 Multivariate model 31.001.03 (0.84–1.26)1.14 (0.92–1.40)1.11 (0.92–1.35)0.38
Soy and legumes
 Cases243253243212
 Person-years229,680232,728232,980237,259
 Multivariate model 11.001.01 (0.84–1.20)0.99 (0.83–1.19)0.89 (0.74–1.07)0.18
 Multivariate model 21.000.95 (0.79–1.14)0.95 (0.79–1.15)0.82 (0.68–0.99)0.05
 Multivariate Model 31.000.94 (0.78–1.13)0.95 (0.78–1.14)0.83 (0.69–1.01)0.07
  • Hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) presented for each quartile of food intake (energy-adjusted) for all multivariate models. Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age, gender, dialect, educational level and year of interview. Multivariate model 2: model 1 plus body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol use, baseline history of diabetes, baseline history of hypertension, baseline history of stroke, baseline history of heart attack and total energy intake. Multivariate model 3: model 2 plus energy adjusted intake of vegetable, fruits, red meat, poultry, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy products, soy foods, and nonsoy legumes.

  • a Linear trend was tested by assigning to participants the median value of the quartile and assessing this as a continuous variable.