Table 2.

Subgroup analysis for the association between AKI and CHF

StratificationNumber of StudiesSettingaRelative Risk95% CII2, %P Value
CHF – setting
 CIN2-1.691.44 to 1.9900.43
 Peri-operative6-1.571.23 to 2.0183
 Other2-1.461.25 to 1.700
CHF – recovery
 Complete recovery3CIN (1)1.411.22 to 1.6200.21
Peri-op (1)
Other (1)
 Partial or no recovery3CIN (1)1.651.35 to 2.030
Peri-op (1)
Other (1)
CHF – severity
 Mild AKI6CIN (2)1.341.11 to 1.61610.01
Peri-op (2)
Other (2)
 Moderate to severe AKI6CIN (2)1.941.62 to 2.3149
Peri-op (2)
Other (2)
CHF – severity (adjusted for LVEF)
 Mild AKI3CIN (2)1.571.37 to 1.7900.032
Peri-op (1)
Other (0)
 Moderate to severe AKI3CIN (2)1.931.69 to 2.200
Peri-op (1)
Other (0)
CHF – median proportion baseline CHF (min–max)
 0.02 (0–0.06)5CIN (0)1.561.35 to 1.80440.91
Peri-op (2)
Other (3)
 1 (0.15–1)5CIN (2)1.581.38 to 1.800
Peri-op (0)
Other (3)
CHF – median proportion baseline IHD (min–max)
 0.25 (0.07–0.42)5CIN (0)1.431.27 to 1.6100.020
Peri-op (1)
Other (4)
 1 (0.72–1)5CIN (2)1.711.56 to 1.870
Peri-op (1)
Other (2)
CHF – median proportion baseline stroke (min–max)
 0.05 (0–0.06)3CIN (0)1.551.25 to 1.92680.83
Peri-op (2)
Other (1)
 0.09 (0.07–0.09)3CIN (1)1.601.35 to 1.880
Peri-op (0)
Other (2)
CHF – median proportion baseline CKD (min–max)
 0.09 (0.07–0.17)3CIN (1)1.541.32 to 1.79300.80
Peri-op (1)
Other (1)
 0.28 (0.24–0.33)2CIN (1)1.591.32 to 1.910
Peri-op (0)
Other (1)
  • CIN, contrast induced nephropathy; Peri-op, peri-operative or intensive care unit; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.

  • a Number of studies is provided in brackets.