Table 2.

Hazard ratios (95% CI) for risk of ESRD according to dietary protein intakes (n=60,198)

Protein (% kcal/d)Quartiles of Energy-Adjusted Protein IntakeP for Trenda
Total protein
 Multivariate model 11.001.40 (1.16–1.70)1.43 (1.18–1.74)1.55 (1.28–1.87)<0.001
 Multivariate model 21.001.28 (1.05–1.55)1.25 (1.03–1.52)1.19 (0.98–1.44)0.16
Total proteinQ1Q2 to Q4 combined
 Multivariate model 11.001.46 (1.24–1.72)
 Multivariate model 21.001.24 (1.05–1.46)
  • Hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) presented for each quartile of protein intake (energy-adjusted) for all multivariate models. Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age, gender, dialect, educational level, and year of interview. Multivariate model 2: model 1 plus body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol use, baseline history of diabetes, baseline history of hypertension, baseline history of stroke, baseline history of heart attack, and total energy intake.

  • a Linear trend was tested by assigning to participants the median value of the quartile and assessing this as a continuous variable.