Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the subjects, divided into cases and controls on the basis of the ‘combined DKD’ phenotype definition

CharacteristicsFinnDiane (N=3415)EURODIAB (N=789)SDR (N=558)Cambridge (N=396)
CasesControlsCasesControlsCasesControlsCasesControls
N18021613298491266292197199
Males, N (%)1067 (59)669 (41)170 (57.2)222 (45.3)150 (56)160 (55)109 (54)93 (47)
Age of onset of diabetes, yra13.4 (8.4)15.6 (8.8)16.7 (8.3)17.9 (8.1)15.9 (9.4)17.1 (9.5)9.1 (4.0)7.6 (6.0)
Age, yra45.1 (11.1)43.6 (11.7)40.3 (10.3)42.9 (10.2)48.2 (14.5)48.7 (13.2)17.0 (5.7)23.4 (10.2)
Duration of diabetes, yra31.7 (9.9)27.9 (9.6)23.7 (9.07)25.0 (7.7)32.3 (14.0)31.5 (12.3)7.9 (5.4)15.8 (6.8)
BMI, kg/m2a25.7 (4.1)25.3 (3.5)24.6 (3.7)25.1 (3.42)24.6 (3.3)24.4 (3.2)NANA
HbA1C, %a8.7 (1.6)8.1 (1.2)8.3 (1.9)7.7 (1.6)7.9 (1.1)7.1 (0.9)10.5 (2.3)8.7 (1.6)
HbA1C, mmol/mola72 (17)65 (13)68 (21)61 (18)63 (12)54 (10)91 (25)72 (18)
  • NA, not available.

  • a Data displayed as mean (SD).