Table 1.

Clinical parameters during the four treatment periods: Intention-to-treat analysis

ParametersRS DietSodium Restriction Diet
Placebo, n=44Paricalcitol, n=44Placebo, n=43Paricalcitol, n=43
Plasma/serum
 Hemoglobin, mmol/L9.0±0.99.0±0.89.1±0.99.0±0.8
 Sodium, mmol/L140.6±2.3140.1±2.0139.8±2.4a140.4±2.4b
 Potassium, mmol/L4.3±0.44.2±0.44.3±0.4c4.4±0.5c
 Calcium, mmol/L2.35±0.112.37±0.102.37±0.132.41±0.15a,b
 Phosphate, mmol/L0.94±0.170.98±0.16a0.94±0.141.00±0.15a,b
 Creatinine, μmol/L110±32112±32113±31120±35a,b,c
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m268±2567±2467±2463±25a,b,c
 Albumin, g/L38±539±540±4a40±4a
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.2±1.25.2±1.24.9±1.0a,c5.1±1.2b
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L1.4±0.41.4±0.41.3±0.4a,c1.3±0.4
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L3.1±0.93.0±1.02.9±0.7a3.1±0.90
 Renin, pg/ml42.9 [30.9 to 59.5]45.3 [32.5 to 63.1]61.3 [44.6 to 84.2]a,c66.5 [48.4 to 91.4]a,c
 PTH, pmol/L5.0 [4.4 to 5.7]3.5 [3.0 to 4.1]a5.5 [4.8 to 6.2]c3.4 [3.0 to 4.0]a,b
 25(OH)D, nmol/L50.4±22.850.6±23.452.7±22.656.4±24.2
 FGF-23, RU/ml114 [102 to 128]139 [122 to 158]a120 [106 to 135]a,c152 [130 to 178]a,b,c
Urine
 Creatinine, mmol/24 h14.7±3.914.5±3.813.8±3.7a14.4±3.4b
 Sodium, mmol/24 h170±61178±68104±59a,c111±63a,c
 Urea, mmol/24 h419±128416±132383±120a404±118
 Potassium, mmol/24 h78±2580±2581±2682±24
 Calcium, mmol/24 h2.4±2.04.5±3.3a2.2±2.4c3.9±2.9a,b
 Phosphate, mmol/24 h32.4±9.533.8±13.330.4±13.231.5±9.9
 Albuminuria, mg/24 h1060 [778 to 1443]990 [755 to 1299]717 [512 to 1005]683 [502 to 929]
 Proteinuria, g/24 h1.4 [1.0 to 1.8]1.3 [1.0 to 1.6]1.0 [0.7 to 1.3]a,c0.9 [0.7 to 1.2]a,c
 Albumin-to-creatinine ratio75 [55 to 101]71 [53 to 94]54 [39 to 75]a,c49 [36 to 66]a,c
 Creatinine clearance, ml/min101±4197±3891±38a90±35a
Other
 Systolic BP, mmHg129±14128±14123±12a,c122±12a,c
 Diastolic BP, mmHg77±978±1174±9a,c74±9a,c
 MAP, mmHg95±1095±1190±9a,c90±9a,c
 Heart rate, bpm65±1066±1065±1065±10
 Body weight, kg90±1789±1788±18a,c87±17a,c
 Compliance, %95±797±697±597±4
  • Data are presented as mean±SD or geometric mean [95% CI] for normally or skewed distributed data, respectively. P value shows treatment effect by linear mixed modeling with center, treatment, sequence, and the interaction treatment × sequence as fixed factors.

  • a P<0.05 versus placebo on RS diet.

  • b P<0.05 versus placebo on sodium restriction diet.

  • c P<0.05 versus paricalcitol on RS diet.