Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of patients with polycystic kidney disease versus control populations at date of entry (all England HES 1998–2012)

CharacteristicAll PatientsPatients with Treated ESRD
Polycystic Kidney DiseaseHospital ControlsP ValuePolycystic Kidney DiseaseOther ESRD CausesP Value
N23,4546,412,754581362,519
Demographics
 Women10,789 (46%)3,349,541 (52%)<0.0012665 (46%)23,813 (38%)<0.001
 Median age (IQR), yr58 (44–70)48 (34–67)<0.00157 (48–66)62 (48–73)<0.001
  20–301679 (7%)1,140,480 (18%)<0.00195 (2%)3177 (5%)<0.001
  30–402822 (12%)1,253,004 (20%)<0.001382 (7%)6078 (10%)<0.001
  40–503753 (16%)946,595 (15%)<0.0011291 (22%)8368 (13%)<0.001
  50–604558 (19%)862,344 (13%)<0.0011689 (29%)10,527 (17%)<0.001
  60–704646 (20%)833,212 (13%)<0.0011365 (23%)14,002 (22%)0.06
  70–804273 (18%)847,183 (13%)<0.001793 (14%)14,782 (24%)<0.001
  ≥801723 (7%)529,936 (8%)<0.001198 (3%)5585 (9%)<0.001
 Ethnicity
  White20,011 (85%)5,209,271 (81%)<0.0015086 (87%)49,059 (78%)<0.001
  Nonwhite2133 (9%)464,484 (7%)<0.001647 (11%)12,233 (20%)<0.001
  Unknown1310 (6%)738,999 (12%)<0.00180 (1%)1227 (2%)0.002
 Quintiles of IMD score
  Quintile 1, lowest3714 (16%)979,301 (15%)0.02998 (17%)8323 (13%)<0.001
  Quintile 25253 (22%)1,401,590 (22%)0.051348 (23%)12,181 (19%)<0.001
  Quintile 35015 (21%)1,395,153 (22%)0.171202 (21%)13,197 (21%)0.44
  Quintile 44931 (21%)1,357,995 (21%)0.571227 (21%)14,041 (22%)0.02
  Quintile 5, highest4541 (19%)1,278,715 (20%)0.031038 (18%)14,777 (24%)<0.001
 Region of residency
  East Midlands1810 (8%)397,065 (6%)<0.001414 (7%)3986 (6%)0.03
  East of England2020 (9%)578,715 (9%)0.03587 (10%)5222 (8%)<0.001
  Northeast397 (2%)122,249 (2%)0.0292 (2%)820 (1%)0.08
  Northwest1111 (5%)325,304 (5%)0.02247 (4%)2368 (4%)0.08
  Southeast2910 (12%)703,644 (11%)<0.001703 (12%)6563 (10%)0.001
  Southwest1525 (7%)447,399 (7%)0.01376 (6%)3670 (6%)0.06
  West Midlands807 (3%)251,870 (4%)0.001245 (4%)2541 (4%)0.58
  Yorkshire and Humber203 (1%)81,723 (1%)<0.00159 (1%)635 (1%)>0.99
  Other12,671 (54%)3,504,785 (55%)0.053090 (53%)36,714 (59%)<0.001
Year of entry
 19984979 (21%)1,032,212 (16%)<0.001
 19993661 (16%)959,561 (15%)0.01
 20002613 (11%)740,815 (12%)0.05563 (10%)5363 (9%)0.004
 20012039 (9%)591,746 (9%)<0.01473 (8%)4855 (8%)0.31
 20021705 (7%)504,447 (8%)0.001480 (8%)4737 (8%)0.06
 20031505 (6%)447,877 (7%)0.001458 (8%)4700 (8%)0.32
 20041246 (5%)387,909 (6%)<0.001413 (7%)4679 (7%)0.29
 20051070 (5%)335,854 (5%)<0.001426 (7%)4721 (8%)0.54
 2006964 (4%)295,583 (5%)0.001447 (8%)5222 (8%)0.08
 2007868 (4%)267,603 (4%)0.001526 (9%)5484 (9%)0.48
 2008823 (4%)246,447 (4%)0.01512 (9%)5421 (9%)0.72
 2009726 (3%)219,299 (3%)0.01453 (8%)5626 (9%)0.002
 2010619 (3%)192,632 (3%)0.001487 (8%)5509 (9%)0.26
 2011503 (2%)155,615 (2%)0.01486 (8%)5102 (8%)0.59
 2012133 (1%)35,154 (1%)0.7089 (2%)1100 (2%)0.20
Comorbidities
 Diabetes906 (4%)189,858 (3%)<0.001470 (8%)20,119 (32%)<0.001
 Vascular1747 (7%)181,832 (3%)<0.001765 (13%)16,820 (27%)<0.001
 Cancer681 (3%)77,098 (1%)<0.001245 (4%)5321 (9%)<0.001
  • Data are n, n (%), or median (IQR). The hospital controls were individuals who had been admitted to the hospital for any one of a wide range of minor medical or surgical conditions across 12 years (excluding any patient with polycystic kidney disease). These included admissions with diagnoses of squint, cataracts, otitis externa/media, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, upper respiratory tract infections, nasal polyps, teeth disorders, nail diseases, sebaceous cyst, soft tissue knee complaints, bunions, contraceptive advice, limb fractures, dislocations sprains and strains, minor head injury and superficial injuries or contusions, and operations, including appendiectomy, dilation and curettage, primary lower limb arthroplasties, tonsillectomy, and adenoidectomy. IQR, interquartile range.