Table 1.

Clinical and renal marker characteristics in ACCORD nested case-control and NEPHRON-D full sampled cohort

CharacteristicACCORDNEPHRON-D
Cases (n=190)Controls (n=190)PRenal Outcome (n=153)No Renal Outcome (n=1103)P
Clinical characteristics
 Age, yr62.3 (5.6)61.9 (5.4)0.3562.1 (7.8)65.2 (7.7)<0.001
 Women92 (48.4)93 (48.9)0.81 (0.7)9 (0.9)0.76
 Race0.980.002
  White141 (74.2)141 (74.2)98 (64.1)764 (76.2)
  Black20 (10.5)20 (10.5)50 (32.7)203 (20.2)
  Hispanic/Latino16 (8.4)16 (8.4)NANA
  Other13 (6.8)13 (6.8)5 (3.3)36 (3.6)
 Body mass index, kg/m233.4 (5.9)32.6 (5.5)0.1833.61 (6.52)34.8 (6.8)0.05
 Coronary artery disease (%)76 (40)44 (23.5)<0.0162 (40.5)501 (50.0)0.03
 Congestive heart failure (%)NANA25 (16.3)160 (16.0)0.9
 Retinopathy (%)9 (4.9)26 (13.9)66 (43.1)432 (43.1)0.99
 BP, mmHg97.1 (11.4)95 (10.3)
  Systolic135.2 (15.2)139.8 (18.1)0.01137.2 (14.2)136.2 (16.4)0.43
  Diastolic74.8 (9·8)75·5 (10.6)0.0273.9 (10.1)72.2 (10.3)0.06
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L184.4 (41.7)174.9 (40.9)0.04157 (137–184)148 (130–179)0.03
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L105.5 (33.6)95.1 (32)0.0183 (63–104)77 (61–97)0.02
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L43.9 (11.8)40.2 (10.4)0.0137 (31–43)36 (31–43)0.25
 Triglycerides, mmol/L182.1 (104.1)206.3 (125.6)0.05162 (108–227)165 (112–251)0.5
 Glycated hemoglobin, mmol/mol8.4 (1.01)8.4 (1.1)0.657.9 (1.5)7.8 (1.2)0.5
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m287 (77–94)90 (79–95)0.3154 (42–69)49 (38–65)0.47
 Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, mg/mg21.3 (7.6–66.4)19.6 (7.7–101.8)0.451739 (714–3211)781 (465–1597)<0.001
Medications
 Use of ACEi or ARB at baseline140 (73.4)122 (65.2)0.08139 (90.3)917 (91.4)0.82
 Randomized to intensive glycemic control101 (53.2)95 (50.8)0.65NANA
 Randomized to intensive BP control49 (25.8)42 (22.5)0.45NANA
 Randomized to fibrate arm84 (44.2)28 (15)<0.01NANA
Plasma biomarker concentrations
 TNFR-1, pg/ml2526 (1872–3308)1963 (1475–2605)<0.015481 (3579–7067)4095 (3044–5562)<0.001
 TNFR-2, pg/ml7590 (6133–9475)6186 (4924–7787)<0.0112910 (9722–16361)10461 (7998–13388)<0.001
 KIM-1, pg/ml254 (192·1–226)179 (137·2–159·2)<0.01735 (438–1172)373 (225–628)<0.001
  • Values are presented as mean (SD) for normally distributed continuous values, median (interquartile range) for skewed continuous values, and N (%) for categoric values. NA, not applicable or not available. In ACCORD, case is defined as achieving an eGFR<60 mi/min per 1.73 m2 along with a sustained (on two or more visits ≥3 months apart) decline in eGFR of ≥40% from baseline eGFR. In NEPHRON-D, renal outcome is defined as the occurrence of a decline in the eGFR (an absolute decrease of ≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 if the eGFR was ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at randomization or a relative decrease of ≥50% if the eGFR was <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) or ESRD (defined by the initiation of maintenance dialysis, receipt of kidney transplant, or an eGFR of <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2).