Table 2.

Percentage of adult patients on dialysis continuously enrolled in Medicare Part A, B, and D who had prescriptions for ≥90 days of an opioid by year

Characteristicsa2006, %2007, %2008, %2009, %2010, %
Total20.020.221.422.323.4
Age group, yr
 20–4420.120.322.023.324.2
 45–6422.823.425.026.127.4
 65+16.916.817.217.918.8
Sex
 Men18.018.219.420.521.4
 Women22.022.323.524.425.6
Race
 Black19.519.921.222.724.2
 White21.821.522.623.324.0
 Other10.612.011.911.712.8
Dual statusb
 No12.813.614.414.916.0
 Yes21.322.724.125.426.5
Residential area
 Large metropolitan17.618.018.819.820.9
 Medium/small metropolitan22.322.323.524.425.7
 Nonmetropolitan23.323.025.025.926.7
ESRD vintage, yr
 1–218.719.720.221.122.1
 3–419.019.120.521.422.3
 5+21.121.022.323.324.4
Dialysis modalityc
 HD20.420.621.722.823.8
 PD14.214.315.115.316.7
History of kidney transplantation
 No19.820.021.122.223.2
 Yes23.123.224.724.625.7
Nursing home residenced
 No19.219.420.621.522.6
 Yes26.327.328.029.229.8
Cancere
 No19.920.121.222.323.3
 Yes23.522.823.823.724.9
Prior pain-related hospitalization
 No19.018.919.820.821.6
 Yes40.142.446.446.749.5
No. of prior hospitalizations
 013.413.714.915.716.3
 1–220.020.321.322.424.0
 3–426.227.728.629.531.5
 5 or more34.234.736.438.439.9
  • The percentages of patients who had chronic prescriptions were significantly different across groups in each characteristic (P<0.01 for all comparisons).

  • a Filled prescription for a 90-day or more supply within the study year.

  • b Dual status in Medicare and Medicaid.

  • c The last modality in the study year.

  • d On the basis of one or more claims in physician/carrier files.

  • e On the basis of one or more inpatient stays with a cancer diagnosis and CMS Form 2728.