Table 1.

Baseline characteristics

VariablesOverall, n=431ESRD during Follow-UpP Value
Yes, n=70No, n=361
Demographics
 Age, yr59.7 (10.4)56. 9 (11.2)60.3 (10.1)0.01
 Women208 (48.3%)37 (52.9%)171 (47.4%)0.40
 Race/ethnicity<0.01
  Non-Hispanic white152 (35.3%)16 (22.9%)136 (37.7%)
  Non-Hispanic black137 (31.8%)42 (60.0%)95 (26.3%)
  Hispanic134 (31.1%)8 (11.4%)126 (34.9%)
  Other8 (1.9%)4 (5.7%)4 (1.1%)
 Annual household income <$20,000186 (42.3)36 (51.4%)150 (41.6%)0.13
 High school graduate306 (71.0%)52 (74.3%)254 (70.4%)0.51
 Married62 (14.4%)15 (21.4%)47 (13.0%)0.07
Clinical history/laboratory
 Current smoking57 (13.2%)14 (20.0%)43 (11.9%)0.07
 Hypertension408 (94.7%)68 (97.1%)340 (94.2%)0.31
 Diabetes217 (50.3%)37 (52.9%)180 (49.9%)0.65
 Cardiovascular disease162 (37.6%)31 (44.3%)131 (36.3%)0.21
  MI or revascularization110 (25.5%)18 (25.7%)92 (25.5%)0.97
  Heart failure43 (10.0%)7 (10%)36 (10.0%)0.99
  Stroke52 (12.0%)13 (18.6%)39 (10.8%)0.07
  Peripheral arterial disease28 (6.5%)9 (12.9%)19 (5.3%)0.02
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease34 (8.0%)6 (8.7%)28 (7.8%)0.81
 Family history of coronary heart disease78 (18.1%)13 (18.6%)65 (18.0%)0.91
 ACE inhibitor or ARB use287 (66.9%)42 (60.9%)245 (68.1%)0.25
 Medication for sleep ≥1/wk18 (14.6%)0 (0%)18 (15.5%)0.26
 BMI, kg/m233.7 (9.2)34.2 (10.5)33.6 (8.9)0.59
 Waist circumference, cm107.7 (17.2)108.4 (18.2)107.5 (17.0)0.69
 Systolic BP, mm Hg130 (20)137 (20)129 (20)0.004
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg71 (12)71 (12)70 (12)0.64
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl172.4 (40.5)173.5 (40.7)172.2 (40.6)0.83
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl93.8 (30.4)94.8 (31.4)93.6 (30.2)0.78
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl45.6 (14.9)44.5 (14.0)45.9 (15.1)0.52
 Hemoglobin, g/dl12.3 (1.8)11.2 (1.7)12.5 (1.7)<0.001
 Urine sodium, mmol/L78.1 (31.1)71.0 (22.9)79.5 (32.3)0.04
Kidney function
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.98 (0.83)2.96 (1.07)1.79 (0.61)<0.001
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m238.3 (14.5)24.8 (10.6)40.9 (13.7)<0.001
 eGFR category<0.01
  <30124 (28.8%)51 (72.9%)73 (20.2)
  30–39128 (29.7%)11 (15.7%)117 (32.4%)
  40–4989 (20.6%)7 (10.0%)82 (22.7%)
  50–5950 (11.6%)1 (1.4%)49 (13.6%)
  >6040 (9.3%)0 (0%)11.1 (31.4%)
 UPCR, g/g, median (IQR)0.20 (0.07–0.81)1.28 (0.45–3.02)0.15 (0.06–0.52)
Sleep variables
 Sleep duration, h6.5 (1.4)5.9 (1.3)6.6 (1.3)<0.001
 Sleep fragmentation, %21.1 (9.8)26.0 (12.6)20.2 (8.8)<0.001
 Sleep start (hh:mm)23:32 (1:37)23:59 (1:44)23:27 (1:35)0.01
 PSQI8.1 (4.5)8.5 (4.2)8.1 (4.5)0.51
 ESS score7.9 (4.9)8.3 (5.0)7.9 (4.9)0.47
 ESS>10110 (26.3%)21 (31.8%)89 (25.2)0.26
  • Values are mean (SD) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. MI, Myocardial infarction; ACE, Angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, Angiotensin receptor blocker; hh:mm, hours:minutes.