Table 5.

Characteristics of patients on dialysis by status of opioid prescription in the 2010 prevalent cohort

CharacteristicsaAll, n=153,758Nonuser, n=55,367Short-Term Prescription, n=62,401Chronic Prescription, n=35,990P Value for Overall Comparison
Opioid prescription, MME/d<0.001
 <2017.820.1
 20–5056.846.7
 50+25.433.2
Men52.258.249.547.7<0.001
Race<0.001
 White52.253.150.753.5
 Black42.038.844.143.4
 Other5.88.15.23.2
Age group, yr<0.001
 20–4416.414.317.917.0
 45–6443.539.742.550.8
 65+40.246.039.532.2
ESRD, yr<0.001
 1–216.615.118.515.7
 3–429.631.428.828.1
 5+53.853.652.756.2
Dialysis modality<0.001b
 HD94.393.793.995.9
 PD5.76.36.14.1
History of kidney transplantation7.66.77.98.3<0.001c
Analgesic prescription14.28.915.719.7<0.001
Dual statusd70.963.772.180.2<0.001
Residential area<0.001
 Large metropolitan51.356.250.145.9
 Medium/small metropolitan29.727.330.232.5
 Nonmetropolitan19.016.519.721.6
Nursing home residencee11.58.512.314.6<0.001
Cancerf5.44.95.65.8<0.001c
Prior pain-related hospitalization6.72.16.514.1<0.001
No. of prior hospitalizations<0.001
 041.958.234.829.3
 1–234.529.938.235.4
 3–413.47.815.618.0
 5 or more10.24.111.517.4
Smoker6.85.16.310.3<0.001
Congestive heart failure25.224.125.127.2<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease9.89.19.611.1<0.001
Cerebrovascular disease7.47.47.47.20.50
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease5.24.34.87.2<0.001
Atherosclerotic heart disease15.515.715.115.9<0.001g
Diabetes54.452.355.555.9<0.001c
AIDS1.00.81.01.1<0.001c
  • Values are expressed as percentages. Chi-squared test was used for overall (three-group) and three-pair (nonuser versus short-term prescription, nonuser versus chronic prescription, and short-term prescription versus chronic prescription) comparisons. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.017 using two-tailed tests on the basis of the Bonferroni method for paired multiple comparison.

  • a Short term: 1- to 89-day supply within the study year; chronic: 90-day or more supply within the study year.

  • b The difference between nonusers and short-term prescription was not significant; other comparisons were significant.

  • c The difference between short-term prescription and chronic prescription was not significant; other comparisons were significant.

  • d Dual status in Medicare and Medicaid.

  • e On the basis of one or more claims in physician/carrier files.

  • f On the basis of one or more inpatient stays with a cancer diagnosis and CMS Form 2728.

  • g The difference between nonusers and chronic prescription was not significant; other comparisons were significant.