Table 1.

Opioid Risk Tool (should be administered to patients on an initial visit before beginning opioid therapy for pain management)

Family history of substance abuse
 Illegal drugs23
 Prescription drugs44
Personal history of substance abuse
 Illegal drugs44
 Prescription drugs55
Age between 16 and 45 yr11
History of preadolescent sexual abuse30
Psychologic disease
 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia22
Total score
Total score risk category for future prescription opioid abuse: 0–3, low risk; 4–7, moderate risk; ≥8, high risk