Table 4.

Factors associated with prescription for ≥90 days of an opioid in adult patients on dialysis continuously enrolled in Medicare Part A, B, and D, 2010 (n=153,540)

CharacteristicsOR95% CIP Value
Sex
 Men1.00
 Women1.211.18 to 1.24<0.001
Race
 Black1.00
 White1.121.09 to 1.15<0.001
 Other0.510.47 to 0.54<0.001
Age group, yr
 20–441.281.23 to 1.33<0.001
 45–641.591.54 to 1.63<0.001
 65+1.00
ESRD vintage, yr
 1–21.00
 3–41.010.97 to 1.050.57
 5+1.121.08 to 1.16<0.001
Dialysis modality
 HD1.00
 PD0.680.64 to 0.72<0.001
History of kidney transplantation
 No1.00
 Yes1.020.97 to 1.070.45
Analgesic prescription
 No1.00
 Yes1.591.54 to 1.64<0.001
Dual statusa
 No1.00
 Yes1.601.55 to 1.65<0.001
Residential area
 Large metropolitan1.00
 Medium/small metropolitan1.361.32 to 1.40<0.001
 Nonmetropolitan1.521.47 to 1.57<0.001
Nursing home residenceb
 No1.00
 Yes1.141.09 to 1.18<0.001
Cancerc
 No1.00
 Yes1.131.07 to 1.19<0.001
Prior pain-related hospitalization in 2010
 No1.00
 Yes2.282.18 to 2.38<0.001
No. of prior hospitalizations in 2010
 01.00
 1–21.481.44 to 1.52<0.001
 3–41.981.91 to 2.06<0.001
 5 or more2.422.32 to 2.53<0.001
  • All variables presented in the table were adjusted in the logistic regression model.

  • a Dual status in Medicare and Medicaid.

  • b On the basis of one or more claims in physician/carrier files.

  • c On the basis of one or more inpatient stays with a cancer diagnosis and CMS Form 2728.