Table 3.

Risk of renal outcomes for every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations:

PM2.5 ExposureMeasureIncident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2aIncident CKDb≥30% Decline in eGFRESRD
Year 2004 annual averageN1,709,7611,644,3512,482,7372,482,737
Events, n %590,799 (34.55)358,923 (21.83)758,342 (30.54)31,904 (1.29)
HR (95% CI)1.21 (1.14 to 1.29)1.27 (1.17 to 1.38)1.28 (1.18 to 1.39)1.26 (1.17 to 1.35)
Time varyingN1,702,9231,637,6432,473,5312,473,531
Events, n %588,557 (34.56)357,600 (21.84)755,378 (30.54)31,790 (1.29)
HR (95% CI)1.25 (1.17 to 1.34)1.37 (1.26 to 1.48)1.36 (1.26 to 1.46)1.31 (1.21 to 1.43)
  • Models adjusted for age, race, sex, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, T0 eGFR, BMI, smoking status, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use, county population density, number of outpatient eGFR measurements, number of hospitalizations, and county percent in poverty.

  • a Incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was evaluated in a subcohort of people with no prior history of eGFR ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at time of cohort entry.

  • b Incident CKD was evaluated in a subcohort of people with at least two eGFR measurements separated by at least 90 days who had no prior history eGFR ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at time of cohort entry.