Table 7.

Adjusted HRs of death, discontinued dialysis, and hospitalization associated with specific opioid prescription in 2010 prevalent dialysis cohort

Specific OpioidNOutcome: DeathOutcome: Discontinued DialysisOutcome: Hospitalization
HR95% CIP ValueHR95% CIP ValueHR95% CIP Value
Hydrocodone
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb18,0061.291.24 to 1.33<0.0011.361.22 to 1.52<0.0011.291.26 to 1.32<0.001
Oxycodone
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb83571.331.27 to 1.39<0.0011.571.35 to 1.84<0.0011.401.36 to 1.44<0.001
Propoxyphene
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb21241.331.23 to 1.43<0.0011.471.17 to 1.850.0011.231.17 to 1.29<0.001
Tramadol
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb38761.181.11 to 1.26<0.0011.140.93 to 1.390.211.251.20 to 1.30<0.001
Codeine
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb9761.131.001 to 1.270.051.290.88 to 1.900.191.291.20 to 1.39<0.001
Morphine
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb10251.561.40 to 1.74<0.0011.921.37 to 2.69<0.0011.541.44 to 1.65<0.001
Hydromorphone
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb8671.651.47 to 1.85<0.0012.581.83 to 3.64<0.0011.581.46 to 1.70<0.001
Fentanyl
 Nonusera55,3671.001.001.00
 Chronicb19261.391.29 to 1.50<0.0011.591.26 to 1.99<0.0011.311.24 to 1.38<0.001
  • Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for sex, race, age, year of ESRD, dialysis modality, analgesic prescriptions, history of kidney transplantation, dual status, residential area, nursing home residence, cancer, pain-related hospitalization in 2010, number of hospitalization in 2010, and comorbidities reported in CMS Form 2728 (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, diabetes, AIDS, and smoking) in each model.

  • a A 0-day supply within the study year.

  • b A 90-day or more supply within the study year.