Table 4.

Risk of renal outcomes for every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration using NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center data for exposure levels

PM2.5 ExposureMeasureIncident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2aIncident CKDb≥30% Decline in eGFRESRD
Year 2004 annual averageN1,649,1481,585,8272,398,3182,398,318
HR (95% CI)1.19 (1.17 to 1.21)1.24 (1.22 to 1.27)1.23 (1.21 to 1.25)1.18 (1.14 to 1.23)
Time varyingN1,648,7721,585,5172,397,9122,397,912
HR (95% CI)1.18 (1.16 to 1.21)1.25 (1.22 to 1.28)1.25 (1.23 to 1.28)1.24 (1.18 to 1.30)
  • Models adjusted for age, race, sex, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, T0 eGFR, BMI smoking status, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use, county population density, number of outpatient eGFR measurements, number of hospitalizations, and county percent in poverty.

  • a Incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was evaluated in a subcohort of people with no prior history of eGFR ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at time of cohort entry.

  • b Incident CKD was evaluated in a subcohort of people with at least two eGFR measurements separated by at least 90 days who had no prior history eGFR ≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at time of cohort entry.