Table 3.

Odds of kidney stone disease, according to recentness of oral antibiotic exposure

Antibiotic Class3 to <6 mo6 to <12 mo1 to <3 yr3–5 yr
OR (95% CI)P ValueOR (95% CI)P ValueOR (95% CI)P ValueOR (95% CI)P Value
Sulfa2.63 (2.42 to 2.85)a<0.0012.06 (1.92 to 2.22)a<0.0011.46 (1.38 to 1.55)a<0.0011.55 (1.48 to 1.62)a<0.001
Cephalosporins2.26 (2.06 to 2.48)a<0.0011.7 (1.57 to 1.84)a<0.0011.32 (1.25 to 1.4)a<0.0011.33 (1.26 to 1.4)a<0.001
Fluoroquinolones1.98 (1.77 to 2.22)a<0.0011.59 (1.44 to 1.75)a<0.0011.3 (1.22 to 1.39)a<0.0011.27 (1.2 to 1.34)a<0.001
Nitrofurantoin2.16 (1.9 to 2.46)a<0.0011.69 (1.51 to 1.9)a<0.0011.44 (1.31 to 1.58)a<0.0011.59 (1.46 to 1.72)a<0.001
Broad-spectrum penicillins1.44 (1.29 to 1.61)a<0.0011.21 (1.11 to 1.32)a<0.0011.1 (1.03 to 1.16)a0.0021.06 (1.01 to 1.12)0.02
Metronidazole1.16 (0.96 to 1.39)0.121.04 (0.9 to 1.2)0.571.03 (0.95 to 1.13)0.460.99 (0.92 to 1.06)0.69
Macrolides1.04 (0.95 to 1.14)0.401.06 (0.99 to 1.13)0.111.05 (1 to 1.1)0.041.01 (0.97 to 1.05)0.77
H. pylori treatment1.68 (0.81 to 3.49)0.171.76 (1.12 to 2.76)0.010.86 (0.63 to 1.17)0.330.92 (0.74 to 1.14)0.45
Tetracyclines0.98 (0.88 to 1.08)0.660.97 (0.89 to 1.06)0.511.01 (0.96 to 1.07)0.691.01 (0.96 to 1.06)0.71
Mycobacterial treatment1.39 (0.74 to 2.62)0.301.49 (0.85 to 2.59)0.160.87 (0.53 to 1.42)0.560.76 (0.51 to 1.14)0.18
Lincosamides0.87 (0.36 to 2.14)0.760.73 (0.36 to 1.45)0.360.92 (0.59 to 1.42)0.710.98 (0.69 to 1.4)0.91
Penicillins0.99 (0.94 to 1.05)0.830.97 (0.93 to 1.01)0.180.98 (0.95 to 1.01)0.300.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.61
  • Models were adjusted for each other antibiotic as separate indicator variables in model, cystic fibrosis, gout, diabetes, immobility, urinary tract obstruction, neoplasm, inflammatory bowel disease (all prior) and rate of health care encounters since registration. Models were also adjusted for UTI and exposure to PPIs, statins, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, and other antibiotic classes within each antibiotic exposure window. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Below Bonferroni P value (0.05/12=0.00417).