Table 1.

Study and participant characteristics by population type

Publication Author, Study AcronymStudy LocationNo. of Participants;Follow-Up DurationBaseline DemographicsBaseline Comorbidity PrevalencesFGF-23 Assay TypeAverage FGF-23 Concentration
General population studies
Ärnlöv et al.,39 ULSAMUppsala, Sweden727; Median: 9.7 yr (range, 0.3–12.9)Age: 78 yrDM: 13%IntactMedian 44 pg/ml (range, 9–162)
Men: 100%eGFR: 74 (17)
CVD: 27%
Ärnlöv et al.,38 PIVUSUppsala, Sweden1003; Median: 5.1 yr (range, 4.8–5.8)Age: 70 yrDM: 12%IntactMean 47 pg/ml (SD 24)
Men: 50%eGFR: 80 (14)
White: 100%CVD: 16%
Brandenburg et al.,40 LURICGermany2974; Median: 9.9 yrAge: 63 (10) yrDM: 40%C-terminalMedian 54 RU/ml (IQR, 40–78)
Men: 69%eGFR<60: 14%
White: 100%CAD: 78%
Deo et al.,41 CHSUSA3244; Mean: 8.1 yr (SD 3.2)Age: 78 (5) yrDM: 15%C-terminalMedian 70 RU/ml (IQR, 53–99)
Men: 40%eGFR: 71 (19)
Black: 16%HF: 9% MI: 11%
di Giuseppe et al.,42 EPIC-PotsdamGermany1443; Mean 8 yr (SD 2.2)Age: 52DM: 7%C-terminalMedian 48 RU/ml (IQR, NR)
Men: 44%eGFR: NR
White: NRCAD: 10.8%
di Giuseppe et al.,22 EPIC-GermanyGermany2908; Mean: 8.2 yrAge: 52DM: 6%C-terminalMedian 54 RU/ml (IQR, 38–72)a
Men: 50%eGFR: 108
White: NRExcluded MI and ST
Garimella et al.,43 CHSUSA3143; Median: 9.8 yrAge: NRDM: NRC-terminalMedian 71 RU/ml (IQR, 54–100)
Men: NReGFR: NR
White: NRCVD: NR
Ix et al.,44 CHSUSA3107; Median: 10.5 yr (IQR, 5.9–11.5)Age: 78 (5) yrDM: 15%C-terminalMedian 70 RU/ml (IQR, 53–99)
Men: 40%eGFR: 71 (19)
Black: 16%CVD: 29% HF: 9%
Kestenbaum et al.,45 MESAUSA6547; Median: 8.5 yr (IQR, 7.7–8.6)Age: 62 yrDM: 12%IntactMedian 38 pg/ml (IQR, 31–46)
Mean: 40 pg/ml (SD 15)
Men: 47%eGFR: 84 (eGFR<60: 16%)
White: 39%CVD: 0%
Lutsey et al.,46 ARICUSA11,638; Median: 18.6 yr (maximum, 20.9)Age: 57 yrDM: 13%IntactMean 44 pg/ml (SD 16)
Men: 43%eGFR: 92 (eGFR<60: 3%)
Black: 25%CVD: 0%
Masson et al.,47 PREDICTORLazio, Italy1835; Mean: 3.8 yrAge: 73 (5) yrDM: 17%C-terminalMedian 74 RU/ml (IQR, 58–97)
Men: 53%Creatinine: 1.0 (0.3) mg/dl
White: NRCVD: 29%
Panwar et al.,48 REGARDSUSA1551 (615 cases); Follow-up: NRAge: 65 yrDM: 21%C-terminalMedian 70.5 RU/ml (IQR, 53–100)
Men: 45%eGFR: 86.5
Black: 40%CVD: 16%
Parker et al.,49 HSSSan-Francisco, USA833; Median: 6.0 yrAge: 67 (11) yrDM: 27%C-terminalMedian 43 RU/ml (IQR, 29–72)
Men: 81%eGFR<60: 22%
White: 60%CVD: 100%
Souma et al.,53 NOMASUSA2525; Median: 14 yrAge: 69 (10) yrDM: 21%C-terminalMedian 57 RU/ml (IQR, 44–81)
Men: 36%eGFR: 80 (22)
White: 21%CVD: NR (no STs)
Speer et al.50Saarland, Germany859; Median: 2.3 yr (IQR, 0.98–2.93)Age: 64 yrDM: 25%C-terminalMedian 65 RU/ml (IQR, 45–115)
Men: 69%Creatinine: 1.2 mg/dl (SD 0.8)
White: NRCAD: 43% HF: 86%
Westerberg et al.,51 MrOSSweden2838; Mean: 4.5 yrAge: 75.5 (3) yrDM: 9%IntactMedian 44 pg/ml (IQR, 32–58)
Men: 100%eGFR: 72 (20)
White: NRCVD: 19%
Wright et al.,52 NOMASUSA2525; Mean: 12 yr (SD 5)Age: 69 (10) yrOn glycemic agents: 15%C-terminalMedian 57 RU/ml (IQR, 44–81)
Men: 36%eGFR: 80 (22)
White: 21%CVD: NR (no STs)
Nondialyzed CKD population studies
Alderson et al.,60 CRISISSalford, UK463; Median: 3.8 yr (IQR, 1.8–5.8)Age: 64 (14) yrDM: 31%C-terminalMedian 209 RU/ml (IQR, 128–470)
Men: 62%eGFR: 29 (15)
White: 96%CVD: 29% HF: 18%
Baia et al.54Groningen, The Netherlands593; Median: 7.0 yr (IQR, 6.2–7.5)Age: 52 (12) yrDM: 18%C-terminalMedian 140 RU/ml (IQR, 95–219)
Men: 54%eGFR: 47 (16)
White: 95%CVD: NR
Bouma-de Krijger et al.,23 MASTERPLANThe Netherlands439; Follow-up: 2 yrAge: 62 (12) yrDM: 23%C-terminalMedian 149 RU/ml (IQR, 87–241)
Men: 71%eGFR: 36 (15)
White: 93%CVD: 27%
Isakova et al.,55 CRICUSA3879; 3.5 yr (IQR, 2.5–4.4)Age: 58 (11) yrDM: 48%C-terminalMedian 146 RU/ml (IQR, 96–239)
Men: 55%eGFR: 43 (14)
Black: 42%CAD: 22% HF: 10%
Kendrick et al.,56 HOSTUSA1099; Median: 2.9 yr
Mean: 2.8 yr (SD 1.1)
Age: 69 (11) yrDM: 55%C-terminalMedian 392 RU/ml (IQR, 216–945)
Men: 98%eGFR: 18 (6)
Black: 26%CVD: 57%
Levin et al.,57 CanPREDDICTCanada2402; Median: 1 yrAge: 68 (13) yrDM: 48%C-terminalMedian 237 RU/ml (IQR, 150–432)
Men: 63%eGFR: 28 (9)
White: 89%CVD: NR
Munoz-Mendoza et al.,61 CRICUSA3875; Median: 6.9 yr (IQR, 4.2–8.2)Age: 58 yrDM: 48%C-terminalMedian 146 RU/ml (IQR, 96–239)
Men: 55%eGFR: 44 (15)
Black: 42%CAD: 22% HF: 10%
Scialla et al.,58 CRICUSA3860; Median: 3.7 yr (IQR, 2.5–4.7)Age: 58 (11) yrDM: 49%C-terminalMedian 146 RU/ml (IQR, 96–239)
Men: 55%eGFR: 44 (15)
White: 42%CVD: 31%
Black: 41%
Seiler et al.,59 CARE FOR HOMEHamburg, Germany444; Median: 2.6 yr (IQR, 1.4–3.6)Age: 65 (12) yrDM: 38%C-terminalMedian 102 RU/ml (IQR, 64–164)
Men: 60%eGFR: 45 (16)
White: NRPrevalent CVD: 30%
Dialysis population studies
Chonchol et al.,62 HEMOUSA1340; Mean: 2.8 yr (SD 1.7)Age: 57 (14) yrHemodialysis: 100%IntactMedian 3118 pg/ml (IQR, 726–12,928)
Men: 45%DM: 44%
Black: 64%CVD: 79%
Jean et al.63France219; Median: 1.9 yrAge: 67 (14) yrHemodialysis: 100%C-terminalMedian 2740 RU/ml (IQR, 1192–8667)
Mean: 7060 (SD 13,500)
Men: 57%DM: 35%
White: NRCAD: 19%
Kim et al.64South Korea205; Mean: 3.5 yrAge: 47 (14) yrPD: 100%C-terminalMedian 79 RU/ml (IQR, 34–155)
Men: 60%DM: 31%
White: NRCAD: 7% HF: 8%
Moe et al.,24 EVOLVEInternational2985; Median: 4.2 yr (IQR, 1.0–5.0)Age: 54 yrHemodialysis: 100%Intact (Millipore)Median 5555 pg/ml (Q10–Q90, 580–19540)
Men: 59%DM: 32%
White: 58%CVD: 95% HF: 23%
Montford et al.,65 HOSTUSA654; Median: 2.9 yrAge: 60 (11) yrHemodialysis: 100%C-terminalMedian 4212 RU/ml (IQR, 1411–13,816)
Men: 98%DM: 41%
White: 38%CVD: 52%
Nowak et al.66Germany239; Median: 2.5 yr (IQR, 2.0–2.7)Age: 68 (14) yrHemodialysis: 100%C-terminalMean 883 RU/ml (SD 1940)
Men: 64%DM: 38%
White: NRCAD: 31%
Olauson et al.67Sweden229; Median: 1.9 yr (range, 0.1–5)Age: 55 yrHemodialysis: 41%IntactMedian 2526 pg/ml (Q10–Q90, 431–19,495)
(IQR, 33–68)PD: 54%
Men: 65%DM: 34% (as cause of ESRD)
White: NRCVD: 41%
Scialla et al.,68 CHOICEUSA466; Median 3.4 yr (IQR, 1.8–5.9)Age: 58 (15) yrHemodialysis: 100%C-terminalMedian 1577 RU/ml (IQR, 818–4946)
Men: 55%DM: 57%
Black: 36%CVD: 56%
  • Age and eGFR are mean (SD). ULSAM, Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men; DM, diabetes mellitus; CVD, cardiovascular disease; PIVUS, Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study; LURIC, Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study; IQR, interquartile range; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHS, The Cardiovascular Health Study; HF, heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; NR, not reported; ST, stroke; MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study; PREDICTOR, Valutazionedella PREvalenza di DIsfunzione CardiacaasinTOmatica e di scompensocaRdiaco; REGARDS, Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke; HSS, Heart and Soul Study; NOMAS, Stroke-free North Manhattan Study; MrOS, multicenter prospective Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study; CRISIS, Chronic Renal Insufficiency Standards Implementation Study; MASTERPLAN, Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners; CRIC, Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort; HOST, Homocysteine in Kidney and End Stage Renal Disease study; CanPREDDICT, Canadian study of prediction of death, dialysis and interim cardiovascular events; CARE FOR HOME, Cardiovascular And REnal outcome in CKD stage 2–4 patients—The FOuRth HOMburg evaluation; HEMO, The Hemodialysis Study; PD, peritoneal dialysis; EVOLVE, Evaluation of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events; Q10, 10th percentile; Q90, 90th percentile; CHOICE, Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD.

  • a Approximated from median (IQR) of two mid quartiles.