Table 2.

Age- and education level–adjusted associations of rapid decline in eGFR by baseline exposure in study participants who were men

CharacteristicRapid Decline in eGFRa
OR95% CI
Alcohol consumption
 Any1.690.70 to 4.10
 NoneReferenceReference
NSAID use
 Daily/regularly1.280.34 to 4.74
 Never/occasionallyReferenceReference
Water sources
 Piped water0.790.34 to 1.81
 Dug well/drilled wellReferenceReference
Water hardness
 Soft/moderately hard1.210.47 to 3.11
 Hard/very hardReferenceReference
Total liquid in last 24 h, L
 >5.01.010.43 to 2.38
 ≤5.0ReferenceReference
Current occupation
 Sugarcane1.510.31 to 7.29
 Agricultural work3.571.14 to 11.13
 Other occupations/EIPReferenceReference
Main sugarcane role (if ever worked in sugarcane)
 Cane/seed cutter2.150.57 to 8.06
 Seeder1.820.40 to 8.20
 Other cane jobs0.940.14 to 6.08
 Never worked in sugarcaneReferenceReference
Current or historical banana work
 Yes1.770.60 to 5.18
 NoReferenceReference
Years in sugarcane1.020.87 to 1.19
Years in agriculture0.990.89 to 1.09
Work carried outb
 Outdoors10.351.35 to 79.24
 IndoorsReferenceReference
Work in a hot environmentb
 Regular/frequently0.460.20 to 1.06
 IrregularlyReferenceReference
Shade availabilityb
 No3.741.59 to 8.76
 Yes or insideReferenceReference
Duration of breaks,b min
 ≤101.860.80 to 4.33
 >10ReferenceReference
Physical effort at workc
 Moderate/hard1.400.59 to 3.32
 None/slightReferenceReference
Agrochemicalsb,d
 Yes1.700.72 to 4.03
 NoReferenceReference
Heat/dehydration symptomsb
 Yes1.400.55 to 3.55
 NoReferenceReference
Dysuriab
 Yes1.180.48 to 2.89
 NoReferenceReference
Feverb
 Yes2.410.80 to 7.27
 NoReferenceReference
  • Agricultural work includes all nonsugarcane agricultural work. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; EIP, economically inactive population.

  • a Rapid decline versus preserved and stable eGFR. Probability weighted according to the results of the growth mixture model.

  • b Over the last 6 months.

  • c Over the last week.

  • d Data were collected at the second visit and included glyphosate, cypermethrin, paraquat, and methomyl.